Article 71 - Honor and who is Honored115. Honor is an active habit of the one who gives honor and a passive habit of the one who is honored. And thus, the one who honors is greater than the one honored, because in the second species of rule C, the one giving honor produces the habit of honor, and the one honored receives the habit of honor in the third species, and has the habit of honor by the fourth species. And here the intellect sees how one and the same habit can be situated in several terms. Moreover, it sees how the slanderer is more clothed in slander than the one slandered. And the intellect is most delighted by this knowledge discovered in this way through the art.
Article 72 - Capacity and Incapacity116. Capacity is a form with which a capacious thing can contain and receive as much as can be supplied to it, and incapacity is the opposite of this. Capacity consists in the second species of rule C whereby it exists as a positive habit in the third and fourth species of the same rule, with the definitions of the principles and the species of the rules. However, incapacity is not caused in the second species of rule C, for it is a privative habit, bereft of any benefit from the principles and rules. Now incapacity is something close to the definitions of contrariety and minority. And here the intellect knows what causes obtuseness of intellect and pitiless cruelty of will.
Article 73 - Existence and Agency117. Existence is the form with which an existing thing is what it is; and agency is a form which moves an existing thing toward its intended goal. This is shown by the second species of rule C, by rule E and by the definitions of goodness, power and medium. And if the definitions of goodness, greatness and eternity - or duration - are added, it must follow that existence is as great as agency. And here the intellect realizes that God alone acts as much by the second species of rule C as He exists by the first species of rule E. More can be learned about existence and agency by referring to the first subject, the chapter on the definition of God, #92.
Article 74 - Comprehension and Apprehension118. Comprehension is a likeness of infinity and apprehension is a likeness of finiteness. Thus, the agent comprehends objects through comprehension and apprehends them through apprehension. He comprehends his object by reason of infinite grace, and apprehends it by reason of finite grace. But here the intellect wonders: how an agent can objectify an apprehended object through comprehension? Then it remembers tasting a drop of wine: while it comprehends the quality of a drop in the palate, it thereby apprehends the quality of the wine in the barrel; and likewise, through the senses, the intellect apprehends the essence of a sense object without comprehending this object's essence stripped of all sense impressions. Here the intellect knows how it comprehends and apprehends things by discoursing with the species of rule C. The intellect comprehends a thing when it defines it by the first species of rule C; and as the intellect cannot comprehend its own essence, so it apprehends its object in the second species; further, since it apprehends its object in the second species, it also apprehends it in the third species of rule C, whereas in the fourth species of the same, it is habituated with both comprehension and apprehension. And in understanding this, the intellect rises to a very lofty and subtle level.
Article 75 - Discovery and What Is Discovered119. Discovery is the form with which the intellect discovers whatever is discovered by it. The second species of rule C shows that the discoverer discovers peregrine discoveries in his own innate discoverable, just as the intellect makes external species intelligible in its own innate intelligible; and in the third species, discovery is a cause of whatever is discovered by discoverers; by the fourth species, whatever is discovered is acquired by discovery.. Here the intellect knows how it builds science, and recognizes its subject, namely this art which discovers its discoveries by means of principles and rules.
Article 76 - Similarity and Things that are Similar120. Similarity is a form with which the thing assimilating assimilates what is similar to itself. Similarity originates in the principles, given that goodness, greatness etc. are similar in that they are all principles; and likewise, greatness, duration etc. are similar in that they are all good. And another kind of similarity occurs by the second species of rule C, when one assimilating assimilates something similar to him, like a father who assimilates a son to himself in the human species and puts the seal of his own similarity on his son's appearance, color and so forth. Further, goodness, greatness etc. are similar because just as goodness has its own correlatives, so do greatness etc. Now goodness etc. have essentially similar correlatives, those of goodness taken together are one goodness etc. And likewise with other higher, primordial and causal similarities from which the lower, sensible and imaginable similarities descend, as for instance many men all similar in species and mores; and many luminaries similar in light, and so forth.
Article 77 - The Antecedent and the Consequent121. The antecedent is the form which causes the consequent. And the consequent is the subject with which the antecedent finds repose. The antecedent consists in the principles and rules of this art, whereas the consequent arises from them. Now if an agent acts with goodness and greatness, its act is consequently good and great, and consequently it is powered. And if goodness is great in greatness, consequently, greatness is good in goodness. Further, if greatness endures forever in eternity, it follows that eternity is infinitely immense in greatness. And if power is infinite duration in eternity, it follows that eternity is infinite empowerment of power. And the same can be said about other things in their own way. Moreover, the second species of rule C is antecedent to the third species of rule C and the third species of rule C is antecedent to the fourth species of the same rule C. As for instance, goodness with its bonifier, bonifiable and bonifying, results in a habit in man. And if a man habituates himself with goodness, he consequently gains merit from his goodness. And likewise with other antecedent and consequent things: for instance, if human nature exists, then it follows that animal nature exists. And if there are two premises, then a conclusion naturally follows.
Article 78 - Power, Object and Act122. Power is the form with which the intellect attains its object, the object is a subject in which the intellect reposes, and the act is the connection of the power to the object. And all three consist in the second species of rule C, as for instance in the correlatives of goodness in which the bonifier is the power or form because it is active, the bonified is the passive object and bonifying is the act issuing from both. And here the intellect realizes that it is false to say that the object moves the power, and that it is true to say that the power moves itself to the object with the object. In the third species of rule C, the power is active and the object is passive; and in the fourth species the power has action and the object has passion. And here the intellect realizes that the mover has no natural appetite to be mobile and conversely. It also realizes that it has the capacity to receive great clarification in philosophy.
Article 79 - Generation and Corruption123. In created things, generation is the form with which the agent causes new forms, corruption is the form with which it deprives old forms, and privation is a form that stands in the middle between both. And here the intellect sees how all three forms stand in their subject where the generator and the depriver are one and the same power which positively generates new forms and in a privative way corrupts old forms with one and the same act which consists in generating and corrupting. The generable and the corruptible are not the same, because they have divergent ends by reason of their mutual opposition, given that the generable is closer to being and the corruptible is closer to non being, even though they both belong to one and the same agent in one and the same subject. For instance, fire acts with one and the same heat whereby it dries clay but dissolves and softens wax. Generation is active in the third species of rule C, and corruption is passive in this species, and both move with the same natural motion. This is because by the fourth species of rule C the subject has action through generation and passion through corruption, as this subject is habituated with a positive habit and a privative habit. And here the intellect sees how generation, corruption and privation are natural principles in elemented things.
124. We have dealt with 79 general forms to which particulars can be applied. For instance if something is said about generation, corruption and privation, then apply this article on generation, corruption and privation without violating the things said in this article, as they are self evident. Now we intend to apply this general art to particular arts, to clarify the way in which this art is general to all arts, so that one who possesses this art can learn and master other arts more easily. And let us begin with Theology.
Article 80 - Theology125. Theology is the science which speaks of God. Thus, the first subject designated by B is a locus where God is spoken about artificially, in a discourse based on the principles and rules. Now whoever wants to speak of God either naturally or artificially can refer to the said subject and say the things about God that are said there. But if they want to extend their discourse to implicit terms, they can apply them to the explicit terms used in dealing with this subject, in a way that does not violate the explicit terms. For instance, let us ask whether it is possible for God not to exist. Here we refer to the things said about God under B, C etc. And if we ask: why is it impossible for God not to exist? Then refer to the rule which asks why God exists. And if we ask whether God can be evil, or whether there are several Gods, then we refer to the place where it is said that goodness is a reason for good to produce great, infinite and eternal good, and also to the place where God is defined. Also, if we ask which law is true, the Christian, the Jewish or the Muslim, then let us refer to the subject which deals with God and see which of these laws is implied by it. And if a preacher wants to preach about God, let him extract the subject matter for his sermon from this subject which provides vast and very broad material, and so forth. And here the intellect realizes what a great object and cause to rejoice it has in the first subject.
Article 81 - Philosophy126. Philosophy is a subject in which the intellect deals with all arts and sciences. Thus, in this art, the philosopher can have a great subject for his understanding, as he can philosophize with the subjects designated by C, D, E, F, G, H and I, and also with the hundred forms. Now the philosopher deals in natural terms with angels, heaven, man, the imaginative, sensitive, vegetative and elementative powers, but there is no way for him to deal with miracles on natural terms, given their supernatural character. An so if anyone wants to make a philosophical investigation, let him refer to the said subjects and apply them to the questions, and then answer in a way that does not violate what is said about the subjects, with an affirmative or negative answer; for the things dealt with in these subjects are clear and manifest to an intellect of subtle understanding. But if the subject of a question is implicit or peregrine, then answer the question by applying the said explicit principles, but in a way whereby the explicit and implicit terms reasonably convene in the proposed conclusion. And here the intellect realizes that this art is an admirable and most general subject for the philosopher's intellect.
Article 82 - Geometry127. Geometry is the art devised for measuring lines, angles and figures. And as this art deals with quantity designated by F, and with the medium of measurement also designated by F combined with B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and K, quantity is taken to be the subject of Geometry. Measurement above causes measurement below, and goodness is one measure in its own right, and so is greatness etc. as signified by the ladders of the second figure and the species of the rules. And thus, goodness, inasmuch as it exists, measures itself as something good and great so that great good produces great good; and this is signified in the place where we dealt with the point, line, triangle, square, circle and figure in articles 42 and following.
128. Measurement also arises in the correlatives of the second species of rule C, and is derived in the third where the measurer, the measured and measuring are habituated; in the fourth species, the measured has a quantified habit with shape, like a colored thing has color. And we will show this with the two following figures.
Suppose this square is equivalent to four spans, and is divided into two equal parts by a diagonal line, one of these is divided into two, and the biggest part is called A, the second B and the third, C. Let us ask: how does the intellect begin to discover geometry? And we answer with the definition of principle, with rules F, H, I and K, and also with subjects E, F and G. Now the intellect visually perceives nine angles in this figure, as A has three, B has three and C has three. But with the imagination, the intellect perceives twelve angles: for if A is equivalent to B plus C, then according to the intellect and the imagination, A has as many angles as perceived by the senses in B and C. But B plus C have six, therefore A has six, three of which are actually visible whereas the other three are in potentiality, as the latter are perceived by the intellect and the imagination without the senses, since they never were present to the senses. And thus the geometer builds a science on potentially existing quantity, as this quantity is translated into sensible signs through similitude and experience, and through it the science remains in the intellect and in the imagination outside of the senses. The second species of rule C is the subject of this science, and the third and fourth species are experiences of the said science. And here the intellect sees how the geometer builds science, namely he uses potential quantity to measure quantity accessible to the senses. It also realizes that it is false to say that the intellect cannot be aware of anything not previously perceived by the senses, because the line in the intellect never was present to the senses, just as the three said angles in A never were present to the senses.
129. And let us now ask: given that the intellect cannot measure a circular line with a compass, how will it find out how many spans a circular line would measure if it were extended? And then the intellect ascends to higher measurement which is outside the senses - as we already discussed - and after this it comes back down to measurement with the senses; with the definition of medium, and with rule F, namely through flow and reflux and with discrete and continuous quantity, it measures the circular line without using the senses, to find out how many spans it measures. And he first draws this figure, containing three squares and one circle, as shown.
Suppose that the minor square is equivalent to four equal spans, and the major square is equivalent to, or worth six spans, then I say that whatever stands between four and six is equivalent to five spans; but the circle stands between the major and minor squares, as shown, because it is contained by the major square and contains the minor one through contact between lines. Therefore it is clear that if the circle were extended, it would be equivalent to five spans, between four and six, just as in numbers where the second unit exists equally between the first and third units. And the same can be said about the three units which exist equally in the ninth number, as they stand equally between the three units before them and the three units after them.
130. Further, the intellect makes another demonstration, as it places one red square equally between the major and minor squares, and with it he squares the circle according to the measurement of the container and the content. Now if the circle contains the red square, and conversely, as we can see in their extremes, then the line of the circle is equivalent to the line of the square; but the red square is equivalent to five spans, because it stands equally between the major and minor squares, and this can be shown by experience, if the red square is extended with a compass. Therefore, the circular line would be equivalent to five spans if it were extended.
131. And another demonstration also shows that the red square and the circle are equivalent. Now if four times four equal sixteen houses, and four times six equal twenty four houses, it then follows that five times four equal twenty houses. And thus it is obvious that the red square and the circle are equivalent as they both stand equally between the major square and the minor square. And here the intellect sees how geometers build science by using extrasensory measurement which is confirmed by sense experience. This is like a carpenter who mentally measures the potential size of a box in the wood, and then brings to act a box of the same size as he had measured in potentiality in the wood.
Article 83 - Astronomy132. Astronomy is the art with which astrologers know the virtues and motions that heaven effectively induces in things below. This art deals with heaven signified by the letter D, and so if there is any unclear issue regarding heaven, then refer to the third subject and reply according to the explanations of the third subject, or heaven, but without violating what is said there about heaven. For instance, let us ask whether there is another heaven apart from the heaven of this world. The answer is no, by the definition of concordance: now were there another heaven, both would convene in corporeity and shape without any subject common to both, and thus imply an impossible contradiction.
Species cannot exist without a genus; nor can there be any distance or closeness between the two worlds as shown in these two figures, one called A and the other called B, whose upper and lower parts would be separated by distance, but not the middle parts, as the three lines indicate: because two are long and one is short. And it would also follow that the void would be the subject of the long lines and the short line, which would involve distance and closeness in a void subject, which is impossible. And here the intellect knows that no other heaven has any capacity to exist, or else, the said inconvenience would follow, and the definition of concordance would be destroyed. Nonetheless I say that there can be another heaven because God's power is infinite. And if this were the case, then distance and closeness between them would be disposed in potentiality, and would not be in act outside the heavens, given that there is no subject, or locus, because only void exists between the heavens. But here the intellect wonders: given that the Sun is not hot per se, why does it heat air? Then it considers the fact that the Sun causes heat by its presence just as it cause darkness by its absence, so that there can be days and nights.
Article 84 - Arithmetic133. Arithmetic is an art devised for enumerating many units. The principles of arithmetic are the principles of this art, for primordial principles as such can be enumerated, for instance, goodness is one general principle and greatness is another etc. Because the principles are mixed together, they compose two species of enumerated numbers, namely even numbers, like two principles, and odd numbers, like three or five principles etc. And all numbers are encompassed by these two species.
134. Other principles of number come from the correlatives of the second species of rule C. For instance, in the essence of goodness, the bonifier is one correlative, the bonified is another and bonifying is another. In these three numbers, the essence of goodness is perfectly complete; the bonifier signifies the first numerical unit, the bonified signifies the second unit arisen from the first, and bonifying is the third one arising from the first two. And because these units proceed through even and odd numbers, they can be multiplied by even and odd numbers so that two times two equal four, three times three equal nine units; and the fifth unit is found by adding an even number to an odd one: now two plus three equal five units, and so on. Here the intellect sees how arithmeticians compose and multiply numbers.
135. Further, by the third species of rule C, the arithmetician can represent numbers as figures, for instance ten units by the letter X which signifies ten units, and so on to C, D, M and the rest. And here the intellect realizes that Arithmetic is derived from Geometry: just as with the figure in the art of Geometry, the geometer measures a circular line with three squares, so likewise, the arithmetician uses letters like X, C, D, M and the rest to measure thousands of things, and all things. And all of this is shown by the rule of modality as well as the second species of rule C. By the fourth species of rule C, numbers have figures in which the intellect uses the senses and the imagination to attain many units, just as the geometer's intellect attains with the senses things that are outside the senses, as we said regarding figure A, B, C in article 82 on Geometry.
Article 85 - Music136. Music is an art devised for ordering many concordant voices in one song, like many principles to one end. And this definition is signified by the definitions of concordance and principle. Music also arises from its correlatives, just as a carpenter has in mind the concept of a box which he brings from potential to act, so does a musician have a mental concept of ordered voices which he brings into the third species of rule C, where music is a habit with which a musician practices his art. Musicians practice by ascending and descending in six steps, by saying ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la.
137. Here the intellect wonders why there are neither more nor less than six steps. Then it remembers article 49 about the six directions. And here the intellect sees how it must get help from the general forms dealt with above by applying them to the issues that need clarification.
138. Now the intellect wonders why there are neither more nor less than three vowels. Then it remembers the four spheres of the elements and the quintessence, signified by the third and eighth subjects; and whereas these are in constant motion, and motion generates sound, and the musician extracts voices from sound, the intellect knows that the primordial order of voice proceeds with five simple vowels from which compound letters, or consonants arise. And now it knows why there are no more or less than five vowels.
139. And the intellect now wonders why the letter E enters into composition with more alphabet letters than does A, and A with more that V. And why do I and O cause no consonants, as A and V do? Then it remembers the triangle containing majority and minority and places the vowels in it: now E has more matter than A or V because it causes B,C,D,F,G,L,M,N,P,R,S,T, and X in the alphabet. A causes H and K, which is more than the sole letter Q caused by V. And as there is majority and minority among the said vowels, so there is also equality between O and I, as they cause no consonant at all.
140. As the intellect thus considers that E is greater than A with regard to matter, it sees that E corresponds to the motion of earth and A to the motion of water. This is because earth has more matter than water. But V corresponds to the motion of air, which has less matter than water; and I corresponds to fire by reason of its slenderness and acuteness, given that it has less matter. O corresponds to the motion of heaven, and the mouth takes on a round, circular shape to pronounce it.
Article 86 - Rhetoric141. Rhetoric is an art devised for rhetoricians to color and adorn their words. And as this art is general, it provides the rhetorician with general subject matter for adorning his words. For instance, we can say: "goodness is great, goodness is eternal", but it is more elegant to join the two together and say "goodness is great and eternal". And so the rhetorician adorns his words by adorning a beautiful subject with a beautiful predicate, as in predicating all the principles of figure A about one and the same subject.
142. There is another way to adorn, or color one's words, namely by adorning a principle with its own correlatives, for instance, by adorning the act of bonifying with the bonifier and the bonified. And then by adorning each correlative with the correlatives of other principles, by saying for instance: great, eternal and good being produces magnified, eternalized and bonified being.
143. And there is another way to adorn words, namely by adorning a principle with its own definition and with the definitions of other principles, as in saying: good, great and eternal goodness is a reason for good to produce good, great and eternal good. Just as a logician finds natural connections between the subject and the predicate to find the true conclusion to a syllogism, so does the rhetorician find the connection between the subject and the predicate in order to adorn a beautiful subject with its natural predicate, as in saying: her majesty the queen has a beautiful face, beautiful hair, beautiful hands and so on. And in another way, a subject can be adorned with accidental attributes, as in saying: her majesty the queen has a beautiful crown and she speaks beautifully, her majesty the queen is good. And this is shown by rule G.
144. And the rhetorician adorns his speech with meaningful words, for instance, April and May are more beautiful words than October and November, because they suggest flowers, leaves, songbirds, and seasonal renewal and regeneration. But October and November do not suggest anything of the kind. And likewise, we can mention fountains, rivers, streams, meadows, trees, shadows and so forth, which are beautiful words to the senses and to the imagination. And this is shown by rule C. Just as the rhetorician praises a friend with beautiful words applied to a good purpose, so does he vituperate and condemn an enemy with beautiful words that are deviated from their end, as in saying to a dishonest religious person: "If I were religious, I would speak beautiful and honest words." And this is shown by the definitions of difference, end and contrariety.
145. And then the rhetorician adorns his speech according to peoples' vocations, as in speaking of science, generosity, chastity and so on. And rhetoric also speaks of military prowess, by speaking of bravery, nobility, integrity, horses, swords etc. And when it speaks of the art of commerce, it mentions gold, silver, merchandise and so forth. And when dealing with agriculture, it speaks of fields, tools, gardens, plants and animals. Now just as a merchant finds beauty in speaking of gold etc. so does a farmer find beauty in words about fields, tools and so forth.
146. And then the rhetorician adorns his speech in three degrees, namely the positive, comparative and superlative; but the comparative is more ornate than the positive, and the superlative is more ornate than the comparative; if we say "roses are beautiful," it is more ornate to say "roses are more beautiful than violets" and even more ornate to say "roses are the most beautiful flowers of all." And this is shown by the definitions of majority and minority.
147. And the rhetorician also adorns his speech by coloring a beautiful noun with a beautiful adjective, or by dishonoring a beautiful noun with a beautiful adjective, as in saying: "the queen is good, the queen is dishonest," because "dishonest" is a more beautiful word than "evil".
148. And then the rhetorician colors matter with beautiful form, as in saying "the human body has the rational soul, and the rational soul has a body well disposed to do good with vigor," and so on. And this is shown by the ladder of principle and its definition.
149. And the rhetorician also adorns the middle with a beautiful beginning, and the end with a beautiful middle, as when in love, the good lover adorns good loving with his goodness, and the beloved is adorned and colored with good loving; and good is habituated with a good habit. This is shown by the definitions of the beginning, middle and end.
150. And the rhetorician can adorn his speech more with substantial and necessary principles than with accidental or contingent ones, for instance by using facts which have more to do with reality than with appearances. This is because a necessary principle reposes more in the end than does an accidental or contingent one. And this is shown by the triangle of majority and minority and by the definitions of the beginning and the end.
151. And then the rhetorician adorns his speech by declaring what is possible or impossible, easy or difficult, useful or useless, frequent or rare and so forth. And this is shown by rules B, C, D etc.
152. And the rhetorician also colors his speech with beautiful proverbs applied to the issue at hand, as shown in the book we wrote entitled "The New Rhetoric".
Article 87 - Logic153. Logic is the art with which the logician finds how the subject and predicate are naturally connected through a middle term which leads to necessary conclusions. By defining the middle term, the logician finds a contiguous medium through the affinities between the subject and the predicate. An example of this was given in the multiplication of the fourth figure.
154. The logician also deals with the five predicables and the ten predicates. An example of this is given in this treatise on the hundred forms, in articles 6 and following. And the logician deals with syllogisms, figures and fallacies, all of which were exemplified in the multiplication of the fourth figure. Thus, if any issue regarding Logic needs clarification, or if there is some peregrine question, then refer to the things said about Logic in this art, and give an affirmative or negative answer without violating the things this art says about Logic .
155. The logician predicates higher things of lower ones, and so he predicates "animal" of "man", "body" of "animal" and "substance" of "body". He also posits multiple genera, for instance he posits the supremely general genus, namely substance, and he posits subalternate genera like body or animal. And he likewise posits multiple species as he posits subalternate species like the ones existing in a straight line between substance and a man. An individual man constitutes an ultimately specific species without anything else below it. And all this proceeds through the triangle of majority, equality and minority, and through the triangle of beginning, middle and end; for instance, goodness is a supremely general principle when it is not contracted, but when it is contracted to the middle, it is a subalternate genus or principle, as "great goodness" stands in the middle between the supremely general and the ultimately specific; but when it is contracted to an ultimately specific species, namely to an individual purpose, then it is an ultimately specific principle, as when we say "the goodness of this man called Peter is great."
156. The logician deals with difference by differentiating, with concordance by according, and with contrariety by opposing. And here the intellect sees how Logic applies, or is applicable to figures A and T. And it also knows how and why a logician cannot stand up against an artist of this art: for any logician who seeks to destroy the stable and immutable principles of this art will be confounded. Now by asking and understanding what the logician means by his conclusion, the artist can conclusively defeat it with the stability and immutability of the principles and the species of the rules, leaving the logician with nothing to say.
157. Further, the logician deals with definitions by using only the first species of rule C, whereas the general artist of this art uses all the species of rule C. The logician deals with second intentions together with first intentions, but the general artist of this art uses the second species of rule C to deal with first intentions and the third and fourth species to deal with second intentions. And here he knows that Logic is an unstable or unsteady science, whereas this general art is permanent and unchanging. And the logician draws conclusions from two general premises whereas the artist of this art also uses the mixture of principles and rules. Moreover, the logician cannot discover the true law with Logic, but the general artist of this art can discover it, for the true law is the one which can stand the test of the principles and rules of this art. Further, Logic is a difficult art to learn, whereas this art is very easy because of the mixture and interconnection of the principles and rules. And this is why the artist can do more with this art in one month, than a logician can do in a year with Logic.
Article 88 - Grammar158. Grammar is the art of devising the correct way to speak and write. By the definition of difference, Grammar is divided into nine modes:
1. the eight parts of speech
Grammar applies or is applicable to this art; now just as Grammar teaches how to speak and write correctly, so does this art teach how to discover other arts. So let us apply Grammar to this art to make it more surely and clearly known to the intellect.
159. There are eight parts of speech, namely: nouns, pronouns, verbs, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections. Nouns apply to the principles of this art, as goodness, greatness etc. are nouns. Pronouns apply, or are applicable to these principles; now pronouns stand for nouns, and the principles of this art are nouns, as we just said, and they have properties because they are proper principles and by reason of their general character, they can apply to any faculty. However, the principles of other faculties or sciences cannot be applied to other sciences, as they do not have the general properties that the principles of this art have. Verbs apply to the second species of rule C, like "to bonify," "to magnify," etc. as they signify an act, just as a verb does. Participles are implied or signified by the same species of rule C, for instance: the bonifying being and the bonified being, the magnifying being and the magnified being etc. Conjunctions are implicit in the same species of rule C, in the act of bonifying which joins the bonifier and the bonified in one perfect concrete being just as a conjunction joins diverse words or phrases into one complete discourse. And adverbs are also implicit in the same species, as in saying "the bonifier bonifies well its bonified," now any agent intends to produce its effect well, which implies the adverb. Prepositions apply to the fourth species of rule C and to the rule of instrumentality, for the grammarian uses the preposition as an instrument to bring a case into act. Interjections apply to the definition of the will, because joy and sadness are primarily expressed by the will.
160. Now let us deal with the cases. The nominative case is implicit in the second species of rule C, in the bonifier, for the bonifier exists per se and does not descend from anything else, and it is the origin of the bonified and bonifying; likewise, the nominative exists per se and as such it does not descend from anything else, but is the origin of the other cases that descend from it. Likewise, the genitive is implicit in the second species of rule C, namely in the bonified and bonifying which both depend on the bonifier just as the genitive depends on its nominative. And it also applies to the third species of rule D which signifies possession, as the genitive does. And the dative is also implicit in the second species of rule C, namely in the bonified, because the bonifier gives rise to it, and the bonifier and bonified together give rise to the act of bonifying. And the accusative is implicit in the same rule, namely in the third species of rule C, where the act of the agent is terminated in its passive object, for the accusative case is the one in which the doer's act terminates in its doable, or passive object. And then the vocative is implicit in the fourth species of the same rule, because a man who calls someone has an object in the one he calls. And rule B can also be applied here, as is clear to anyone who diligently penetrates the nature of this rule. The ablative is implicit in the second species of rule C, namely in the essence of the bonifier, bonified and bonifying, because it is essentially and naturally the original cause of these three correlatives.
161. Conjugation is implicit in the second species of rule C, namely in the essence with its correlatives, like in goodness with its correlatives; now goodness is the original cause of its correlatives which descend from it and which are different from each other according to their diverse properties. Likewise, in conjugation, there is some principle from which descend words that are very different from each other because of different persons, tenses, moods and so forth.
162. Declensions are implicit in the second species of rule C. Now the bonified and the act of bonifying descend from the generating bonifier, as one case does from another in a declension.
163. Gender is implicit in the correlatives of the second species of rule C, in which the three genders are implied, as the bonifier signifies the masculine gender by reason of action, the bonified signifies the feminine gender by reason of passion, and the act of bonifying signifies the neuter gender by reason of its neutrality.
164. Governance is implicit in major power and virtue in the governor and in lesser power and virtue in the governed. One with greater power and virtue should govern, and not be governed, whereas one with lesser virtue and power should be governed and not govern. For instance, a count should govern and control his simple soldier and not vice versa.
165. Construction is implicit in the triangle of beginning, middle and end by reason of due order: now the beginning, by definition, naturally comes before the middle and the end; the middle, by definition, comes before the end; and the end, also by definition, comes after everything else, so that the beginning reposes in the end through a due and orderly process. As in building a house, the part below is built first and the top is built afterward, as in saying "Peter runs" rather than "Runs Peter". Now if someone wants to build a house by putting up the roof before the foundation and the walls are up, his order is wrong and impossible.
166. Spelling is implicit in the rule of modality. This rule teaches how a part exists as a part; how one part is in another part, or joined to it; how the parts exist in the whole and the whole in its parts, and finally how the whole transmits its likeness outwardly. Likewise, spelling teaches how a letter is what it is, how letters are joined to other letters, syllables to other syllables, phrases to other phrases, sentences to other sentences, one accent with another accent etc.
167. Figures of speech are implicit in the definitions of contrariety and concordance. And contrariety applies to these definitions, for inasmuch as a figure breaks the rules of Grammar, it is contrary to them. But if a figure can be deemed grammatically correct for some reason of its own, it applies to the definition of concordance. Now if the reason intrinsic to the figure is concordant with Grammar, the figure is grammatically correct, otherwise, it is not.
Article 89 - Morality168. Morality is the habit of doing good or evil. We dealt with morals in the ninth subject, and so if there is some question about morals which is explicit in this subject, refer to the subject; but if it is implicit, then refer to the things explicitly said in the ninth subject. For instance, if the question is about injury, then refer to justice, or if it is about generosity, then refer to avarice, because opposites are known by their counterparts.
169. If a virtue is taken as the subject and the principles of this art are applied to it as predicates, the virtue is fortified and amplified, not in its essence but in act, as in saying: "charity is good, charity is great, charity is durable" etc. and thus charity is disposed as a habit with which a man does charitable works in a good, great, durable etc. way. To deal with a vice, make it a subject and apply to it the opposites of the principles of this art, by saying, for instance: "cruelty is evil, cruelty is as evil as it is great, it is as evil and dangerous as it is durable etc.
170. An excellent exercise for cultivating virtue is to discourse on virtue by evacuating the third figure, for instance by saying: charity is good, great etc. Then ask: what is good, great etc. charity, and likewise with the rest of the content of camera BC. And then go on to camera BD and so on, by saying, for instance "what does the duration of charity consist of?" and then give the answer in the same way as the questions are answered in this camera, so that there is no conflict between the things said in this camera and the things said about charity. And cruelty can be dealt with in a similar way. And thus, charity is nurtured by this method, but not cruelty. Now good is lovable per se when it is known with greatness and duration whereas evil is detestable per se when it is known with greatness and duration. The things said earlier in the multiplication of the fourth figure help the moralist to use the virtues against the vices by discoursing on virtues or vices with the table, and artificially finding the middle term, just as a logician does with his art. And this method enables the moralist to clothe himself in virtue and to strip himself of vice; for instance, charity and goodness are naturally inseparable moral values, because charity cannot exist without goodness, just as a man cannot exist without belonging to the animal species. And the intellect is very glad to have this artificial doctrine.
171. Every virtue and every vice can be discovered with the species of the rules. A virtue can be discovered in one way with one species and in another way with another species, just like the senses find color in an apple in one way, taste in another way and weight in another way, likewise, charity is discovered in different ways when applied to the four species of rule C. And contrariwise, the same can be said about cruelty.
172. To acquire virtues and avoid vices, or to increase the virtues and decrease the vices, refer to the fourth subject which is about man, and get help in acquiring the virtues against the vices from the things said there about man in combination with the principles and rules. And if there is still an obstacle, refer to the subject of imagination and the subject of the senses, to be better disposed toward acquiring the virtues and eradicating the vices. And if all this is not enough, refer to the first subject in prayer and see how God is discussed with the principles and the rules, to acquire the habit of hope, and this is the ultimate remedy. And if the goal is attained, all is well, but if it is not attained, the shortcoming lies in insufficient knowledge of how to use the artifices of this art.
Article 90 - Politics173. Politics is the art with which townspeople provide for the public good of their town. As they are derived from morality, Politics apply to the ninth subject by acquiring the virtues against the vices. And the public good is built on these virtues, by discoursing on Politics with the principles and the rules in the same way as the virtues and vices are dealt with in the ninth subject. Politics is known by its definition, and by its own correlatives signified by the second species of rule C. By the third species of rule C, it is a habit of the people, and by the fourth species, the population has a political habit. And Politics can be discussed in various ways with the other species of the rules.
174. Politics is order established with the virtues in sensible things, as we see for instance in a town market for providing the necessaries of life like food and so on. And Politics is also order for well being, as in attractively laid out rows of buildings, open spaces, and other sites, as well as elegance of dress and so forth. Moreover, Politics requires that a city have walls, ramparts, armaments etc. to defend itself against its enemies.
175. A city and its ruler must convene on prerogatives which stand between them like a middle term, like the one logicians establish between the subject and the predicate with the definitions of concordance and end. And town councillors and townspeople must be the custodians of these prerogatives so that relations between the ruler and the city are well tempered with clearly defined rule of law.
176. With regard to a city, Politics is a general form, and it is a special form in each household in that city, and this requires a middle term in which the general and specific forms join together through the definition of concordance and the mixture of the principles, so that this middle term is entirely free of contrariety. Metaphorically, the body politic owes its health to the healthy mentality of virtuous councillors; but vicious councillors make the body politic sick and crippled. Politics thrive on substantial and necessary principles, but accidental and contingent principles place it in deadly danger. And given that Politics is not a difficult subject, we have said enough about it here.
Article 91 - Law177. Law is the well ordered act of a man possessing justice. By the first species of rule D there are four basic principles of law, namely divine law, natural law, civil law and positive law. Divine law consists in the definitions of majority, minority and concordance existing between God and man. Natural law necessarily consists in the definitions of goodness, greatness etc. Civil law consists in the definitions of concordance and contrariety existing between men. But positive law consists in the voluntary decisions of legislators as they apply the definitions of goodness, greatness etc. And all laws in general are contained in these four principal terms by the second species of rule C, and by the third species of rule C, law exists in other things, and by the fourth it has its act in the things judged by it.
178. The constitutive form and matter of law are in the second species of rule D and the first of E. And by the second species of rule E, justice is the subject of law. Judgment requires that justice be taken as the subject of which the principles of this art and their definitions are predicated, as in saying "justice is good," "justice is great" etc. Hence it follows that justice is a good and great reason for a judge to make a good and great judgment, and this shows that the principles of this art are the form of justice and that justice cannot be complete without them. Justice is the subject of the principles sustained in it, and justice is a form with respect to the judge possessing it. And it is also a form because of the action a judge exercises with it on matters under judgment; and consequently we see that the matter to be judged is the matter of justice, when we consider that judgment is passed on it by the judge, just as an act is done by the doer in the doable. And this is clearly shown by the third species of rule C.
179. Perfect and righteous judgment requires that the judge discourse through the principles and rules of this art as is done in the ninth subject. And if this is done, then justice necessarily acts as a perfect form in the matter under judgment, and the judge can use it in making his decision without any hesitation of conscience. But if the judge does not perform the said discourse, as we said, then he applies justice in a wrong and haphazard way, and with a hesitant conscience, which is a great and terrible danger for his soul; because anyone who causes great damage through his lack of prudence and discretion deserves a severe sentence.
180. A written law is true if it can pass the test of the principles and rules of this art, but if it does not pass this test, then it is a deformed and contrived fantasy. Now the principles and rules of this art are true, necessary and flawless, for each and every one is true and necessary, so that it cannot be anything else than what it is. Just as a crystal takes on the diverse colors on which it is placed, so do laws or canons take on the colors of the principles and rules of this art when applied to them, and as they are colored, or fortified and clarified with various necessary reasons, the judge quickly sees the truth about both parties, which he cannot do without this art, for without it, he can only detect some truth after lengthy hard work and study which still leave him with some doubts. And here the intellect realizes that law is not an art, but can be reduced to this art by referring it to the said principles and rules. And because law is not an art, it is no wonder that it is confusing, long-winded and an impediment to understanding.
181. In the soul, the subject of law is as much in the memory as in the intellect, which goes against the right order among the powers of the soul: now the intellect first investigates and discovers laws; after which the will makes a choice, and then the memory conserves the species; and because the universal is more than the particular, and given that the memory is the subject of particulars from which no science can be built, therefore, currently, law is not disposed in the right order in the soul. And here we see that without principles, there is no art.
182. The form of law cannot act outside of its own matter designated by rule G, nor vice versa, and this is why legislators must know what the form and matter of law are. The form of law, in terms of the principles of this art, is the aggregate of the active correlatives of the principles, namely the justifier, bonifier, magnifier etc. which all convene in one form by reason of concordance. And justifiable, bonifiable, magnifiable etc. things are the matter of law, inasmuch as the form and matter are discussed in combination with the straight sequence of rules and definitions of principles. Now this paragraph implicitly contains all that can be said about law.
183. In law, the intellect is stronger with the imagination than with the senses because the imagination is a power higher than the senses, and since the intellect is a power higher than the imagination, it is stronger on its own than with the imagination. And so that legislators may know how to use each power according to its higher or lower rank, I suggest that they become familiar with subjects E, F and G, and that they discourse with the species of the rules before making a decision, for otherwise the decision may be compatible with one species, but incompatible with another species; for instance, in the second species of rule C, laws arise out of necessity, whereas in the third species of the same rule, they arise from contingencies. And this is clearly shown by the definitions of majority and minority.
Article 92 - Medicine184. Medicine is a practice with which the physician cares for his patient's health. The physician shall use the mixture of the principles and rules of this art, because the method for mixing them will lead the physician to practical knowledge in the mixing of medicines, for making decoctions, ointments, plasters and syrups and administering herbs in measured degrees against illness.
185. In the subject signified by D, heaven is discussed with the principles and rules, and in the subject signified by E, man is discussed with the same principles and rules. And as higher principles are active in things here below, the physician must refer to the said subjects and see which constellation is associated with the patient's problem, as he must go by this information in order to intervene in the case at hand.
186. And the physician must be practiced in the subject signified by F, for he must know how to use his imagination; and as his intellect uses the imagination to build science about sense objects, he should know how to use the imagination objectively without the senses, and how to reach back down to the senses with the imagination, and raise sense perceptions to the imagination so that the imagination functions as a medium placed directly and in an ordered way between the senses and the intellect. And this is done with the definition of medium.
187. And the physician shall refer to the subject signified by G, to know how to use the senses by observing the patient's color, urine and feces, and by smelling the patient's breath, and by listening to his complaints and cries, by appraising his appetite, feeling his pulse and so forth. Now a physician who does not know how to use the senses is not a good physician.
188. And then the physician shall refer to the subject signified by H, to train himself practically in the method with which the vegetative is discussed there. Now this method will enable the physician to know the degrees of herbs and their virtues, with their effects on the patient. For instance, if a decoction is made with one herb which is hot in the fourth degree, dry in the third, moist in the second and cold in the first, adding another herb which is cold in the fourth, moist in the third, dry in the second and hot in the first, and another herb which is moist in the fourth, hot in the third, cold in the second and dry in the first degree, the physician can now know which herb prevails, or has the strongest virtue in this decoction. And we say that the herb which is moist in the fourth degree prevails, because fire and water are opposites, whereas air is in agreement with both, and this is why it has greater virtue than fire and water in this medicine. And fire, which agrees more with air than does water, prevails over water in this medicine.
189. Then the physician shall refer to the subject signified by I, and become practiced in the method with which the elementative is discussed there, and then apply it to his patient, as the physician should know the characteristics of the elements and the way they are composed in the patient, especially by applying rules F, G, H, I and K. Further, the physician shall apply the principles and rules of this art to the writings and discoveries of Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, and other authors, inasmuch as they are applicable, and judge the writings by expounding and clarifying what the authorities say. Now just as a money changer can tell real gold apart from false gold by rubbing it on a black stone, so can the physician gain true knowledge and experience of medical writings by applying them to the principles and rules of this art, and seeing what color - metaphorically speaking - the said writings take on when placed in contact with the principles and rules. And the intellect is most delighted to realize that by reducing merely positive knowledge to this art, it can turn it into an art based on necessary conclusions.
Article 93 - Government190. Government is the form with which a ruler informs and rules his people with good moral values. Therefore the ruler shall train his intellect in the ninth subject so he can rule and govern his subjects. And he shall also refer to other subjects, for instance to subject B, in order to know and love God: this knowledge will guide him in reigning and governing. And he shall refer to subject E, now if the ruler knows the method of situating man in the principles and rules, he will know how to deal with men, in judging or sparing them. Further, he will learn the subject designated by F, to know how to apply his imagination to the city, to warfare, to judgments, to counsel and so forth; for just as a peasant does not know how to race a horse, so does a ruler without a well ordered imagination not know how to reign, because without a well ordered imagination, the intellect does not know what to do with the things that the senses perceive.
191. Then the ruler must know the subject designated by G, to know how to use his senses to observe not only himself, but his officials as well, and then to transfer the sense data to the imagination, and then from the imagination to the intellect, and from the intellect to the ninth subject. But if the ruler says that these things are difficult, answer him by saying that he should do what he can, and entrust the things beyond his capacity to wise advisors who know what to do in order to advise him so that the principles and rules are not violated, and the ruler be in concordance with the supreme subject removed from any contrariety. And here the intellect sees how the ruler's governance can be reduced to the art and made into a science. If only a ruler could be found who would reduce his governance to the art, and who would dispose his son toward the art, and teach it to him, or have it taught to him. Therefore I advise all rulers to learn it.
Article 94 - Chivalry
192. Chivalry is a practice with which the knight helps his prince maintain justice. Given that knighthood was conceived for maintaining justice, the knight must familiarize himself with justice by following the way justice is discussed with the principles and rules in the ninth subject of this art, until he knows it perfectly. And because a knight at war needs prudence, he must put on the habit of prudence to strengthen himself against his enemy. Therefore the knight must know how prudence is discussed in the ninth subject and defend himself against his enemies with this artifice; because this art is an impregnable skill, and the knight who possesses it will defeat one who does not know how to use the art. Fortitude is a virtue that strengthens a man's heart, especially as he becomes more familiar with it, because the more he learns about fortitude, the more daring he becomes. Hence, it follows that if a knight wants to know fortitude perfectly, he can refer to the ninth subject where it is covered in full. A knight without faith, hope and charity is poorly armed in war, and so the knight must clothe himself with the said virtues, with God's help, following the way they are discussed in the ninth subject.
193. The knight wants to be good in goodness, and greatness makes him seek great victories, honors and such. Here, the intellect sees how chivalry can be reduced to this art; and it also realizes that the soul's virtues are weapons more powerful than bodily weapons, because this art does not pertain to the body, but only to the soul. The knight should be of noble lineage, because nobility is a magnanimous disposition of heart, and a source of great daring in one's countenance and right hand, which ensure victory when supported by a valiant heart. Warfare requires great imaginative faculties and powerful senses, whose greatness is inherent in the discourse on the virtues in the ninth subject. Now just as a sword in stronger hands defeats a sword wielded by weaker hands, so does the knight with more powerful senses and imagination defeat other knights in battle. And here the intellect knows that there are times when just a few knights can defeat a great many.
Article 95 - Commerce194. Commerce is an acquired practice with which the merchant knows how to sell and buy so as to increase his wealth. This is shown in the mixture of the principles and rules, where we teach how each principle relates to the others: in trade, the buyer relates to the seller with his principles and rules, and the seller also relates to the buyer with his principles and rules, so that each can acquire something more in exchange for something less. Hence it follows that the merchant who knows how to discourse with his intellect, imagination and senses through the principles of this art has a major advantage over a merchant who does not know this discourse. Whatever a merchant does in buying or selling, he does with his intellect, will and memory; and so he must use these powers in their natural order in the soul, whereby the intellect first of all understands, followed by the will which makes a choice, then followed by the memory which preserves the species with which buying and selling proceeds in the market. And to use this artifice intelligently, the merchant shall survey the transaction with his imagination and senses, without which there can be no buying or selling. And he will know how to go about this if he knows how to train himself in the subjects designated by E, F and G. And here the intellect sees how some merchants earn more wealth than others.
195. Subject E deals with man, and therefore with the human body, which is a part of man. And since buying and selling involves things needed by the body, a good merchant should discourse with his intellect through subject E so that he can become aware of the body's needs. The third and fourth species of rule C are a great topic for the merchant's investigation, together with rules H and I, for the same merchandise or the same goods have more value at one time than at another and more in one place than another, and also they are more a matter of need and utility for some, but a matter of well being and honor for others. Further, the second species of rule E, with rule G, causes profit in purchasing and selling; and as proper things have a higher purpose than appropriated ones, so whatever is more properly necessary for man is farther removed from contingency than what is only incidentally needed. In a faithful and virtuous man, commerce is a perfect practice; but in a deceitful and sinful man, it is a flawed practice. And therefore, anyone who wants to be a good merchant shall become practiced in the virtues following the way they are discussed in the ninth subject. Well informed commercial practice fosters a common and social approach to goods, whereas a malformed practice destroys this common and social approach. Many other things can be said about commerce, but this is enough, for the sake of brevity.
Article 96 - Navigation196. Navigation is the art by which sailors know how to navigate the sea. Navigation is originally derived from Geometry and Arithmetic, through motion and its correlatives signified by the second species of rule C, namely the mover, the mobile and the act of moving; and through time and place, because a ship is in one place at one time and in another place at another time. Given that Arithmetic and Geometry are derived from this art - as we proved in previous articles - it is therefore clear that the art of Navigation originates in this art first of all, and is subsequently derived from Geometry and Arithmetic. To clarify this, we first draw this figure divided into four triangles, as shown, and consisting of right, acute and obtuse angles.
197. Supposing that the place where four angles meet is due north, and this is where the ship's port is, shown by the letter B. From here, a ship wants to sail eastward, but it is actually on a course due southeast, so that when it sails four miles, these four miles due southeast only amount to three miles of progress eastward; and when the ship sails for eight miles, this only amounts to six miles of eastward progress; and if it sailed one hundred miles, it would amount to 75 miles eastward. And thus, the arithmetician calculates by saying that if four miles amount to three, then twice four amount to six, and if four times four equal sixteen, the three times three equal nine, and so with other multiplications of this kind, in their different ways. The reason for this is that in motion, first there is a point, followed by a line, then followed by a triangle, and then by a square, by reason of which successive local motion is generated through multiplication. And this is signified by the previous articles on the point and the line. This kind of natural motion and multiplication is unknown to sailors and navigators, although they know what it is to experience it. And to shed further light on this experience, we will provide a doctrine about it.
198. If a ship leaves the port at B and wants to sail due east, but is actually on a southward course, it then deviates twice as much as it would if it sailed southeast. This is because southeast is between east and south. And if the ship is on a southwesterly course while it wants to sail eastward, it deviates three times as much, and if it is on a westward course, it deviates four times as much. And here the intellect sees how the ship's motion is composed of straight and oblique lines. We have shown a method with which sailors can gauge the deviation of their course from their intended destination, now we intend to provide a doctrine and art to enable sailors and navigators to know where a ship is located at sea, and we will show this by an example of calculating distances between different mountains.
199. Let L be a mountain four miles to the east of port B (where the ship is moored). M is another mountain four miles southeast from port B, and N is a mountain four miles south of the port. And let O be another mountain eight miles south of the port. Now we ask: how far is L from N and from M, and how far is O from L and M?
200. In answer to the first and second questions, we say that sailors can gauge these distances by multiplying the miles and calculating the deviation. Now if four miles amount to three, it follows that mountain L in the east is three miles from mountain M in the southeast, and six miles from mountain N in the south. And if mountain O in the south is eight miles from the ship, then the sailor reckons that O is proportionately more than twice as far from L as it is from M in the southeast.
In answer to the third question we say that there are eight miles from the port to O, and four miles from L to the port, which shows that L is nine miles from O.
In answer to the fourth question we say that O is eight miles from the port, and M is four miles from the port, so that M is six miles from O. And this is the solution to the fourth question.
201. Following the example in which the distances in miles between mountains L, M, N and O were reckoned, this art can be applied by the artist for proportionally reckoning the distances in miles between other mountains, by multiplying miles in triangles and squares; because just as the arithmetician multiplies numbers by calculating that three times three equal nine and four time four equal sixteen, so can the sailor also make his calculations. Thus we have clarified a method by which sailors can determine the position of a ship at sea, by gauging the distances from north to east, south, as well as west, southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast, with respect to the ship's position. And this doctrine is easy, brief and most useful, it is general and applicable to particulars.
202. By rule G and by the subject of the elementative we know that if the wind blows from the east, it is more inclined to the southeast than to the northeast, because the southeast is moist and warm, whereas the northeast is cold and moist, since it is caused by the north. And if the wind blows from the southeast, it is more inclined toward the east than toward the south, because the south is hot and dry. And the same can be said about the other winds in their different ways.
Then the sailor must consider different qualities of air: cold, gross air heralds the north wind; moist and tenuous air heralds the east wind; warm and subtle air heralds the south wind; dry and cold air heralds the west wind.
The clouds signify the winds by their colors: red clouds herald the east wind; golden clouds herald the south wind; white clouds herald the north wind; black clouds herald the west wind. Clouds composed of several colors herald a mixture of winds, and the prevalence of different colors signifies the prevalence of the winds they stand for.
293. Rain coming from a directioin signifies wind from the same direction. And the same applies to lightning and thunder in their way. A whirlwind at sea signifies wind in circular motion taking on a shape like a snail or conch shell, by whirling around in a circle to raise seawater aloft as if it were fine dust rising from the ground. And a whirlwind's colors signify different winds in the same way a cloud's colors do.
204. We need not deal with magnets and iron in this article on Navigation, because what we know about them from experience is sufficient. Here we need not seek to know why a magnet attracts iron, as this topic does not belong here, but with the natural sciences. Those interested in the natural sciences can look into this for themselves. And the intellect is delighted to reflect on the things said here about Navigation, because it has been amply instructed about the art of Navigation.
Article 97 - Conscience205. Conscience is a form with which the intellect afflicts the soul for what it has done, and it is signified in subject E. Conscience is a form with which the intellect acts, the will chooses and the memory retains things. Whoever wants want to use his conscience well can discuss it in combination with the ninth subject. A great conscience arises from the definition of majority, but a temperate and virtuous conscience comes from the definitions of equality and virtue. Conscience arises from what is possible and understood, not from what is impossible and ignored, and thus it can be treated with the definitions of power and intellect. To learn about conscience, discuss it in combination with the principles and rules, and especially with the mixture of the principles, because each principle clarifies it in its own right and with respect to the other principles, and in this way the conscience gives clear advice about contrition, confession and satisfaction for what one has done. Conscience arises with love from the correlatives of the principles, it exists in the third species with fear and sadness, and in the fourth species of the same rule, the subject in which conscience exists must have remorse by reason of the second species of rule C. Even before a sin is committed, conscience has disposed justice, prudence, fortitude and temperance, but after the commission of a sin, it causes sadness, depression and sorrow, and thus it can be reduced to the definition of principle and to rule H.
206. Conscience lives on goodness, greatness and perseverance, but it dies from malice, smallness and inconstancy, and thus it can be reduced to the definitions of goodness, greatness, duration etc. Conscience fortified by discussing the first subject in combination with the principles and rules, becomes increasingly active and gives rise to contrition, confession and satisfaction. Then conscience brings sighs from the heart, tears from the eyes and many prayers from the lips; and rule I signifies this. With divine justice, conscience gives warnings which it amplifies in greatness and eternity; but through the goodness and greatness of God's mercy and through hope and penance, conscience brings consolation to all. It never sleeps, nor does it let a man sleep because of a sense of time lost and of the need to do penance, watching and praying in the company of diligence and fear, which are close relatives of conscience. As the intellect thus reflects on conscience discussed with the principles and rules of this art, it becomes impregnable and infallible, and is greatly encouraged by this knowledge.
Article 98 - Preaching207. Preaching is a form with which the preacher instructs the people to foster good habits and to avoid bad ones, especially if the sermon is based on the principles and rules of this art and on the nine subjects, whereby the preacher's intellect and that of the listeners is supplied with an abundance of great subject matter. This kind of preaching is very useful and easy, founded with consummate artifice on a great subject. Just as the preacher artificially trains his intellect to understand, so must he train his will to love what is of benefit to his audience, so that his sermon be really as valuable as it appears to be. And he must apply the definitions of equality, intellect and will so that the intellect and the will both equally come to rest in the sermon, or else the sermonizer delivers his sermon clothed in vainglory. The preacher shall artfully educate the listeners' memory by using artifice in artfully constructed sermons; for instance, in preaching about the first subject, he should deal with things that naturally belong together, as in saying: "God's justice is great, God's mercy is great, and each is as great as the other; for this reason, the sinner shall live in joy and fear, with the help of justice, prudence and hope." This kind of habit made of fear and love has great appeal to the listener, who can remember and love it as much as he understands it.
208. In preaching, the preacher must proceed in the same way as the intellect does in discovering what science is made of. The intellect makes science of sense objects which it transfers to the imagination away from the senses; after which the intellect goes on to make science within itself, without the imagination; and thus the preacher shall first descend to the senses and refer to sense experience, after which he shall ascend to the imagination by referring to imaginable experience, and then ascend to the intellect by giving it experience of intelligible things. And the same can be said about the memory and the will, in their own way. But if the preacher does not do this, his sermon is obscure and confusing to the listener who will not remember it, but ignore it with his intellect and disregard it with his will.
209. Part 6, on the evacuation of the third figure, has examples of how to evacuate cameras, and the sermonizer must likewise evacuate the sayings and propositions that make up the theme of his sermon. He must also seek out the middle term for drawing conclusions as shown in part 7, on the multiplication of the fourth figure. This approach fortifies the intellect when it understands the authorities of the saints instead of merely believing in them, because believing is not the intellect's natural act, whereas understanding is, given that every faculty is happier and more contented when it can exercise its own act. And the things said here about the intellect can also be said about the will and the memory, in their own way.
210. The article on Geometry shows the method by which geometers make demonstrations. Likewise, the article on Arithmetic gives examples of how arithmeticians enumerate units. Then the article on Rhetoric tells how the rhetorician adorns his discourse. Therefore, the sermonizer in delivering his sermon must be skilled in Geometry, Arithmetic and Rhetoric, and enlightened by these arts so he can apply them to educating and enlightening the listeners' intellect. The preacher must be a theologian able to converse about God, and also a philosopher able to trace effects to their prime cause, by referring to the subjects signified by B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I and K. A preacher who knows how to do this will dispose of great and broad subject matter for his sermons.
211. The preacher shall define the divisions or parts of his topic, or sermon, because the people recognize things by their definitions. Then he shall use the method of combining a topic with the principles and rules, following the examples given in the hundred forms. The preacher's intellect and that of his listeners will find much satisfaction by folowing this process. Because God is most intelligible, lovable and worthy to be remembered, the preacher must communicate great knowledge about God and make God very much understood, remembered and loved by the people, and he can do this with the mixture of principles and rules and with the first subject. If he does not do this, his sermon is flawed and on shaky ground.
There are three places, one of which is perfect and flawless in every way, namely paradise, where eternal and infinite glory dwells. Another place is totally defective, namely hell where every imperfection is found. The third place is partly perfect and partly imperfect, this is the condition of this world. Therefore the preacher shall refer to these three places, and clarify what they are, what they contain, what they are for and what their usefulness is. Now the entirely perfect place is totally lovable, and the entirely imperfect place is totally hateful; and the part which is partly perfect and partly imperfect is partly lovable because of perfection and partly detestable because of its imperfection. By considering these things, the intellect knows the method by which the sermonizer can reduce his sermon to the art of preaching and compose sermons quickly and easily, as we did in writing a book on the art of preaching which contains 108 sermons composed with this artifice.
Article 99 - Prayer212. Prayer is a form with which the person praying speaks with God in a holy way. Whoever wants to pray well should acquire a good disposition by the ninth subject, because God deserves to be honored with the virtues and not with the vices. The person praying or contemplating should pray, or contemplate God by the process of evacuating the third figure, as the prayer is signified in the figure's evacuation, by saying, for instance: "Great and magnificent Lord our God, since your innate and supreme goodness and greatness are in supreme concordance in their natural distinction and mutual agreement; and your goodness and greatness are your innate reasons for naturally producing great good, may your supreme goodness and greatness be your reasons for morally producing, as an effect in this world, many good and great things whereby your people can be good and great, in praising You, magnifying You and being in harmony with You. Because You, Lord, are the essence and substance in which your supreme goodness and greatness have the good, infinite and mutually distinct correlatives which we see in You, and because You, Lord, are a good and great creator, may it please You that your people become good and great in praising and serving You so that You have a good and great people with different and concordant mores." After evacuating camera BC, the person praying or contemplating will then evacuate camera BD, saying, for instance: "Sweetest goodness existing in distinct diffusion in an eternal subject, removed from all contrariety, primordial and sole eternalizer subject to nothing else, with your kindness and eternity, please defend your people from everlasting torment."
213. The person contemplating or praying, after having evacuated the entire third figure during successive days, then goes on to multiply the fourth figure by contemplating or praying according to the method of this figure, namely the method shown in column BCD and the others, by considering the natural middle term which exists between the subject and the predicate. He can say, for instance: "Revered goodness, You are naturally the good, great and eternal reason for the good, great and eternal being which exists within Yourself and from Yourself, and there is nothing preexistent to You; would this be why You appear to have forgotten Your people? It seems that it would, given that there is more evil than good in the world, for the greatness of evil lasts longer than the greatness of good. But this cannot be, Lord, because Your most benign goodness and greatness brought your people from non existence into existence within time, so it could praise and magnify You in eternity." The contemplative evacuates camera BCTB by saying, for instance: "Lord God, your supremely great goodness is a good and great reason for You to act with distinction to produce a good and great correlative, distinct from You as a correlative but not distinct from You with regard to goodness and greatness because your essence is one. And as this is so, your most lofty production descends to us with kindness and magnificence to clarify and demonstrate to us what good and evil are, to induce us to do great good and to defend us from great evil."
While one prays in this way, one cannot objectify any other object, as the intellect cannot understand other species while it is occupied with understanding the species it discovers through this process. And here the intellect sees how one can constrain his soul and bind it continuously and artificially to the supreme subject in prayer. Now the intellect remembers the Art of the Philosophy of Love which we wrote, for it would be good to associate or combine it with the method of prayer described here.
214. Then the contemplative prays to God by praising and imploring Him following the method by which God is discussed in the first subject. God does not listen to sinners against his own reasons or against his correlatives, or else He would be doing injury to Himself, which is impossible. Here the intellect realizes that a sinner who prays without any conscience or contrition is not doing anything beneficial, rather, he is deriding and blaspheming God.
Then the contemplative prays to God as the prime cause of the subjects designated by C,D,E,F,G,H,I and also K with regard to the virtues, because knowledge of the cause leads to knowledge of the effect and vice versa. And here the intellect realizes that the subject of prayer is very great and wide ranging.
215. As you pray, you must love God more than yourself or others, for if you do this, you are prudent, just and well disposed in charity and holiness, and this disposition is your ally in prayer inasmuch as it will lead you to perfection in prayer. But if you do not do this, you have no ally, instead, God is your enemy because you are insulting Him.
216. When praying about your past sins, you must love God's justice and not hate it, because if you hated it, then God's mercy could not be your friend, as you would be unjust, disposed to cruelty and removed from hope and charity, and your love would be perverted into hate, a hate that could become your habit in eternity.
217. As you contemplate and pray, if you cannot understand and attain the lofty heights of the divine reasons and their acts, then pray as a believer, because you cannot be reproached for not doing what is beyond your capacity. Nonetheless, such an understanding is possible, and your belief will be your ally in prayer and your understanding even more so, if you can attain it.
218. As you pray, you must arouse your conscience with your prayer and discuss it in combination with the principles and rules, for if you do this, you will obtain contrition. And if you discuss contrition with the principles and rules, it will set your heart in motion, giving rise to weeping and sighs, and water will well up from the heart to the eyes, wetting your face, hands and clothing, and you will feel that this water is hot because it springs from a hot and fervent source, and this holy water will lead you to confession. And if you discuss confession with the principles and rules, it will lead you to satisfaction and penance, and this will unite you to God in everlasting glory.
219. As you pray, consider the adversities and the prosperities that God has given you out of his love: the adversities so that you can patiently bear God's justice; the prosperities so that you can have charity by his grace. Because prosperity and adversity are given to you by one and the same love, you must bless, praise and love God's love and thank Him abundantly because God loves the prosperity and adversity in you with this kind of love, and if you love them in God, your love will lead to everlasting loving in eternal glory.
220. As you pray, if your intellect is impeded by your senses and imagination, then ascend in prayer to the first subject, and survey it without the senses and imagination. Or if you want to descend, then pray with the senses and the imagination by combining your prayer with the subjects designated by F and G. Then you will see that in prayer, lower forms can do nothing against higher forms. And this doctrine is a great source of joy for the intellect.
221. As you pray, survey the ninth subject in prayer as you understand, love and remember God with hope, fear and thanksgiving, and do not let up until sighs rise from your heart and tears flow from your eyes, for if you let up before attaining this state, you are not a good and great contemplative. As you pray, get help from what is said about the hundred forms, by surveying one form and then another, and discuss each form in combination with the principles and rules, which will provide you with abundant subject matter for discovering many new prayers. Pray for the people, because universal prayer is most pleasing to God. Then pray for yourself, for your friend and for the deceased. And do this artificially as described above so that your soul will be trained to pray in a good and great way, and entirely bound and chained to God through this training.
Article 100 - Memory Combined with the Principles222. Because the memory, as a faculty of the soul, is just as perfect as the intellect and the will, which we dealt with in a perfect way by mixing them with the principles, we now want to deal perfectly with memory, by discussing it in combination with the principles and rules, to gain perfect knowledge of it. Here we also provide a doctrine, because just as memory is discussed with the principles and rules, so can each of the hundred forms be discussed in combination with the principles and rules.
Just as the memory is naturally good by reason of goodness, so is its goodness a moral reason for it to recall good objects.
The memory is great in greatness, and this is why its greatness is a reason for to perform a great act of remembering with which it remembers a great object.
Just as a man wearing an overcoat and a suit is clothed in one habit with the coat and in another habit with the suit, so does the memory have one condition with duration, whereby it makes its remembering last as it deals with past things; and it has another condition with power, whereby it deals with possibilities.
The memory has one condition with the intellect and another condition with the will; through the intellect it receives species which are understood, whereas through the will it receives species which are either loved or hated; and the memory restores species by remembering them in the same way as it received them from the intellect and the will.
The memory is naturally a virtuous habit because it naturally remembers objects. And when it remembers an object with moral virtue, it accidentally dons a virtuous habit. But when it remembers a vicious habit, it accidentally dons a vicious habit.
The memory is true by reason of the truth whereby it truly remembers its object. And when it attains its object with respect to the end, it is a just and true habit; but when it attains its object in a way contrary to its ultimate end, it is an unjust and false habit. And here the intellect sees how virtues and vices are caused.
The memory enjoys remembering glory, but is saddened by remembering punishment. Also, whenever the memory is unable to remember what it wants, it is grieved because it has become a passive and dispossessed habit.
223. With difference, the memory remembers objects in various ways, for it remembers differences between objects in the same way as the intellect understands them. This is because difference is a general principle or instrument of the memory as well as of the intellect.
By reason of concordance, the memory agrees with the intellect and the will in the object, as it remembers objects that are understood and loved or hated, so that the object is equally under the three faculties at the same time.
With contrariety, the memory sometimes contradicts the intellect and the will when it does not retrieve the species they want to recuperate, because it is not well disposed to retrieve these species. It could be that the intellect and the will do not want to retrieve them because the memory is not retrieving them in the same way as the intellect and the will supplied them. Perhaps the intellect is slow and the will is in too much of a hurry, or conversely. Or the intellect is seeking out one species while the will wants some other species.
In the beginning, as a man actively remembers something, the memory is his form, or instrument with which he remembers the object, and this object is the subject matter, and the act of remembering is the final purpose. And when remembering is impeded, the memory suffers, and so does the man using it.
In the memory, remembering is a medium existing between the one remembering and the thing remembered, through which they come together, supposing that they do so through a straight line equally measured between the man remembering and what he remembers.
The memory terminates in three things, namely the power, the object and the act, for beyond these the memory has no power. The end of privation deprives memory of its habit, for when it lacks an object and an act, it is like eyesight in the absence of light and color. The final purpose of the memory is to remember memorable things.
By reason of majority, one memory is greater than another in essence or in quantity, for one memory has a greater act than another. Further, when the memory has a major act, it is a major habit; but when it has a minor act, it is a minor habit. I am not saying that its essence either grows or decreases, for as a spiritual faculty, it is neither divisible nor corruptible; but man uses this faculty at will and thus he sometimes remembers a great deal, and sometimes not much, just as he sometimes runs a great deal, and sometimes not much.
The memory exists naturally and equally between the intellect and the will, so that it equally receives and retrieves species that are understood and loved. However, it sometimes receives species which are loved but not understood, and this is when a man believes something he does not understand, because he has a greater preference and desire for believing than for understanding.
With minority, the memory is close to naught, and thus, when it forgets, it is deprived of its habit by reason of minority.
Article 101 - Memory Combined with the Rules224. We ask: is the memory quicker to receive species from the intellect than from the will? The answer is yes, and this is because the intellect builds science whereas the will freely deliberates.
225. With the first species of rule C we ask: what is the memory? And we say it is a faculty whose specific function is to remember things.
With the second species of rule C we ask: what does the memory have essentially in itself? We say it has its correlatives, namely the memorative, the memorable and remembering.
With the third species we ask: what is the memory in other things? We say it is objectively good in goodness, supposing that the intellect and the will repose in some object. And it is evil in malice, supposing that the will loves this evil. Also, the memory is a habit with which a subject preserves science.
With the fourth species of rule C we ask: what does the memory have in other things? We say that it has goodness in a good subject, greatness in a great one, etc. And it has action in the subject and the object.
226. With the first species of rule D we ask: what does the memory originate from? And we say that it exists on its own, because it is created, and neither engendered nor made from anything preexistent to it.
With the second species of rule D we ask: what is the memory made of? We reply that it is made of its own specific matter and form with which it acts in accordance with its species.
With the third species of the same rule we ask: to whom does the memory belong? We say that it belongs to the subject in which it exists: naturally, as a part belongs to its whole, and morally, as a coat belongs to the one wearing it.
227. With the first species of rule E we ask: why does memory exist? We answer that it is because it is made of its form and matter.
With the second species of this rule we ask: why does memory exist? We answer that it exists so that things can be remembered, and also to enable man to build science on things learned in the past.
228. With the first species of rule F we ask: does the memory have continuous quantity, given that it is not linear? And the answer is yes, because it is an indivisible and finite spiritual power. All finite things have quantity, and if a spiritual thing is finite, it has quantity, so it is clear that memory has quantity.
With the second species of rule F we ask whether memory has quantity. And the answer is yes, so that through difference it can have its own innate correlatives, for its essence has one correlative in the memorative, another in the memorable and another in remembering. To say that memory does not have these correlatives amounts to saying that it has been voided of its own nature and in need of it, which is impossible, and thus it is clear that memory has discrete quantity by reason of its correlatives.
229. With the first species of rule G we ask: what is the proper quality of memory? And we reply that it is its ability to recall, like man's ability to laugh.
With the second species of rule G we ask: what appropriated qualities does memory have? We reply that it has moral habits like justice etc. or injury etc. or like Grammar, the martial arts, agriculture, etc.
230. With rule H we ask whether memory exists in time. And the answer is yes, because it is new by reason of the motion of the subject in which it exists, as the soul is moved in a mobile body. The other species of rule H designated by C, D and K can be likewise dealt with in their way, and we leave this clarification up to the diligent reader, for the sake of brevity.
231. As memory has no surface, we ask whether it exists in some place. And the answer is yes, like a part in its whole without any contact, just as compounded elements exist without contact in elemented bodies; now contact impedes composition, as we see in a pile of stones and coins, which is not a compound but an aggregate.
232. With the first rule K we ask: how can one dispose the memory toward remembering an object that one wants to, but cannot remember? And we answer that the method consists in applying the definitions of the principles and the species of the rules to the likenesses one wants to remember; now just as the intellect attains the thing signified through its signifier, so does the memory remember its desired object through similitude, for instance when a man sees someone who looks like his son, he immediately remembers his son upon seeing his look alike.
233. With the second rule K we ask: with what does the memory forget? We answer that it is with minority in combination with all the principles and species of rules; now just as majority causes positive habits, so does minority, in its own way, cause privative habits.
We have dealt with the hundred forms and provided a doctrine by which the artist can discourse on each form with the principles and rules of this art. And in the last part of the forms we showed how this art can help to learn the liberal arts easily.