Bl. Raymond Lull
Doctor Illuminatus

bullet1 Part II
10 Predicates

bullet3 I - Relation

I - Relation in Chaos

1. The prime Chaos had the potential to communicate itself to species even before there was a second Chaos, and the second Chaos had to be created, that is to say, made by the Creator from the prime Chaos, so that the prime Chaos could attain the end for which it was created; therefore the prime and the second Chaos were related to each other by way of generation and creation; the relation between the second and the third Chaos follows in a similar way: there had to be a third degree, but it could not exist without the second, therefore the second was necessary, and this shows clearly enough that the prime Chaos and the second are related to each other, immediately by way of generation and through a medium by way of creation.

2. All four essences of the prime Chaos are mixed in utter confusion, and many specifications arise from this blend, whence follows the relation between proper form, proper matter and remote matter, as between the ignificative of igneity and the ignificable of aereity etc. or else there could not be any universal essence of the prime Chaos, nor any other essences derived from it through specification.

3. Creator and creature are related to each other in the first, second and third Chaos: the first Chaos was created from nothing, and likewise the second in the first, and then the third likewise in the first and second, and the third comes from the generating agent and involves the generation that the third receives from the first and second.

4. The confusion of the first Chaos and the confusion of the third are related to each other: now the confusion of the first, as it flows into the third, cannot communicate itself to the third unless the third, in receiving it, surrenders to confusion, as we see in a generating wheat grain which must die and return to a confused state in the ground before it can produce grains generated from itself in specific forms, and this is why the first and third Chaos are relatively opposed, namely the first by way of confusion and the third by way of specification, as we can see in the confused mass of bread, wine and meat digested in the stomach to produce specification in blood. In turn, blood enters confusion to produce nutritive specification through the organs and limbs into flesh, nerves, bones and marrow.

5. In a wheat grain present in the third Chaos, form is related to matter because form is action and matter is passion, whence relation follows by accident, as something not substantial, but accidental; now form is substantial and active whereas matter is substantial and passive, whence relation arises by accident, without adding anything substantial to form and matter, although it adds something accidental, namely the action of form and the passion of matter, so that the relation between form and matter implies the action of form and the passion of matter as form is formificative and matter is formificable.

6. Ignificative being is a substantial formal point; ignificable being is a substantial material point; these two points give rise to substantially aggregated substance; but understand that this must involve the other elements. Likewise, the relative point is accidental because it accidentally denotes substantial action, and the relatable point is also accidental because it denotes substantial passion; and just as a rational being's ability to laugh is accidental, and properly denotes something real by denoting human substance, so likewise, relation is intended to denote active form and passive matter, or else form and matter could be described or denoted without relation, which is incongruous.

7. A father in the human species must be a man, and likewise, a son in the human species must be a man, whence relation follows by accident to signify the operation whereby the one begets and the other is begotten; and the essence of this relation is paternity and filiation, where paternity denotes the one who begets and filiation denotes the one who is begotten, which shows that substance exists by the first intention but accidents and relation exist by the second intention, in order to denote substantial operation in distinct substantial supposites.