Bl. Raymond Lull
Doctor Illuminatus

bullet1 Part II
10 Predicates

bullet3 Q - Habit

Q. The Habit of Chaos

a.1. The Chaos has a dual habit and situation: substantial, and accidental. It is substantial, because in igneity, the ignificative and ignificable are mutually habituated under the substantial being of fire, and the same applies to the aerificative and the aerificable in aereity, and so with the others. It is accidental because the ignificative has its ignificable in aereity, aqueity and terreity, and the same with the aerificative and the others, and therefore fire, air etc. are mutually habituated by accident. Substance and accident are mutually habituated in the Chaos inasmuch as intense and extended quantity exists throughout the entirety of substance, as do the other accidents, and likewise, each accident is mutually habituated with every other accident in the Chaos, like quantity in quality and conversely, and action in passion and conversely, and this shows that habit exists in the third Chaos, into which it is instilled from the prime Chaos both substantially and accidentally.

2. All the species were created in potentiality in the prime Chaos and they were brought into act in the second, as for instance in the first human. All the individuals of the human species were habituated in this species when it was represented by the first man, and then they were brought into act as the first man begat the second, and the second begat the third and so on with the others, up to the present.

3. After death, a man's radical moisture is habituated in the Prime Chaos, awaiting the day of resurrection when it will come again into act; and just like the human species is conserved while some men die and others are born, similarly, every man's radical moisture is conserved between the Prime chaos and the third, so that just as it was in the prime Chaos in potentiality before any human had been generated, so likewise, after each man's death it reverts to habit in the prime Chaos, or else, the habitual specific individuality of each man would be destroyed if it returned to potentiality after death, but this is impossible because potentiality and being would convene with majority whereas habit and privation would convene with minority, which is an obvious contradiction and contrary to God's greatness and justice, for in this way, potentiality would have the first intention and habit would have the second intention, which is inconvenient.

4. The prime Chaos is habituated with itself, given that it is composed of itself; and its form and matter are mutually habituated, as form exists in matter and conversely, and as the form is composed of four forms, namely the ignificative, aerificative etc. and the matter is composed of four matters, namely the ignificable, aerificable etc. The same applies to the third Chaos, but only through the intermediary of God and of the prime Chaos, for the third cannot be habituated on its own without God's grace and the influence of the prime Chaos.

5. Due to his father who is in the third Chaos and due to the prime Chaos, a human son is in a habitual state whereas he was previously in a merely potential state in the prime Chaos, but once this son has been generated, he actually exists, brought forth from the habit in which he potentially existed, into act by the prime Chaos and by his father, as the father and the son now exist in the third Chaos where the father is one supposite and the son is another supposite; and the son, after his death, remains in a habitual state in the prime Chaos only, where he had been in a merely potential state, and this is because he has been brought closer to being and removed from non being through his acts during his life; however, this does not apply to irrational animals and plants, but on the contrary, these beings which had been in potentiality in the prime Chaos, no longer exist in potentiality, habit, or act even though their remains still exist, because this would be superfluous, given that they are not due for resurrection.

6. The prime Chaos has the third within itself and conversely, which can be seen as follows: Peter's son was in a potential state in the prime Chaos, and after Peter's conception, his son was in a habitual state with respect to the participation of the prime Chaos and the third in Peter; however, Peter's son was in potentiality in Peter's being, but when the son was generated, he was then simply in act in the third Chaos, and after the son's death, he is no longer in the third Chaos either actually or habitually but only potentially habituated in the prime Chaos while awaiting resurrection, as we said. Here we can see how the prime Chaos and the third are mutually habituated.

7. As we said above, in the prime Chaos there are causal seeds, namely the five universals and the ten predicates, while their individuals are either in potentiality, habit, or act, given that the prime Chaos and the third are mutually habituated so that both exist within each other as described above. Here we can know how the five universals and the ten predicates are mutually habituated through the mutual habituation of the prime Chaos with the third.

8. In the Prime Chaos and the third, intrinsic and extrinsic operations are mutually habituated in the following way: to generate a son, the father divides some radical moisture from himself and gives it to his son without incurring any decrease in himself while generating the moisture, just as the light of a candle is not diminished even though it divides itself when lighting another candle, and this is because as much as this candlelight produced in the third Chaos gives some of itself to the other lights lit by it, so much does it recuperate from the Chaos, so that this light retains its numerical identity by means of the conjunction of intrinsic and extrinsic work in both the third and the prime Chaos.

9. The prime Chaos and the third are mutually habituated by means of difference, concordance and contrariety. In generation, they are habituated through difference and concordance; whereas in corruption, they are habituated through difference and contrariety; this shows how the habit of the prime Chaos and the third exists in the beginning, middle and end, in majority, equality and minority, inasmuch as FG know how to discourse through what was said so far about the Chaos.

b. The way in which the prime Chaos and the third are mutually habituated was just described with reference to the previous things we said. Now let us look at the habits of the four powers, namely the vegetative, sensitive, imaginative and rational.

1. The powers in man are mutually habituated in the following way: the vegetative in man is sensed, imagined, rationalized and moved as it exists as a corporeal essence subject to the senses, imagination, reason and motion; now just as a candle is illuminated by the light of fire and the light of fire is illuminated by the light of the Sun, so likewise is the vegetative sensed by the sensitive, and the sensitive imagined by the imaginative, and the imaginative rationalized by the rational power, while the motive power is that whereby the powers move within one another in the being of one rational supposite, as each power has the others in itself as well as its own numerical identity in itself and in every other power, just as in an elemented being each element has its own numerical identity in itself and in the other elements, so that each element mixed with the others can all together constitute an elemented thing.

2. In man, the vegetative, sensitive and imaginative have the rational power as their first intention, whereas the rational has these powers as its second intention, and so the rational predominates, and the corporeal habit in man has the second intention, and his spiritual habit has the first.

3. The vegetative has appetite for its own vegetable matter which is of its own essence, just as the ignificative has appetite for its own ignificable as they are of the same essence, and therefore the vegetative and its vegetable matter are mutually habituated in a substantial way. But since the vegetative has appetite for the sensitive so it can live and sense things through it, the sensitive and the vegetative are mutually habituated in an accidental way, so that the vegetative, as it lives in an animal, senses things passively and the sensitive senses them actively through the vegetative which is its organ.

4. The vegetative needs the imaginative: now, as the sensitive fails to detect in its presence the objects that the vegetative needs, the imaginative supplies the things that the sensitive fails to perceive, for sensible objects are sometimes absent from the sensitive power, but remain present in the imaginative, which shows clearly enough how the vegetative, sensitive and imaginative powers are mutually habituated.

5. The vegetative and the rational are mutually habituated in the following way: the vegetative forms the body directly, but the rational forms the body by means of the vegetative which it moves to live and vegetate, to enable the rational power to exercise its acts of remembering, understanding and willing through it.

6. The vegetative and the motive are mutually habituated in the following way: the motive and the mobile arise in every elementative and every elementable through the appetitive, retentive, digestive and expulsive and through the sensitive, imaginative and rationative as they are all mixed in the essence of one rational supposite.

7. The sensitive has appetite for sensing its own sensible, namely the supposite endowed with senses in which the sensitive is mixed together with the other powers, as we can see in man, as said above; further, it has appetite for sensing a great many objects by seeing, hearing etc. And this shows how the sensitive and the sensible are mutually habituated, now the sensitive is a simply active form, and the entire supposite, or man, is sensible. Further, the sensitive senses a great many objects, for man senses things by accident, i.e. through the sensitive form which is also sensible, as it passively allows its sensing to proceed in this man.

8. The sensitive and the imaginative are mutually habituated because one power exists within the other, as when form in the sensitive senses corporeal objects and relays species to the imaginative so the imaginative can have these objects when the sensitive is absent, and supply the sense objects absent from the sensitive power.

9. The sensitive and the rational are mutually habituated as the forms exist within each other, while the sensitive lives in the supposite for the sake of the rational power, and not vice versa. However, the sensitive supplies sense objects to the rational so that the soul can remember, understand and love or hate; while the rational moves the sensitive so it can sense things and survive by sensing them, and so that while it lives, the rational remembers the sensitive and keeps it alive within itself; and as the body lives in the soul, so the sensitive senses things when it lives in the body.

10. The sensitive and motive powers are mutually habituated in the following way: the sensitive is moved by its five senses, and it moves the body which is subjected to its sensing action while the body passively senses heat, hunger, cold, thirst etc. This is because the sensitive attracts sensual species and places them in its own sensible, just like the active intellect places intellectual species in the possible intellect, and also sensual species, by using the imagination.

11. The imaginative is mutually habituated with its imaginable in the following way: whatever is sensed can be imagined, namely any sense object, and then, while it is being imagined, it is given over to the rational, and now the imagination is passive and the rational is active as the rational moves the imaginative and uses it to measure the triangular, square or circular figures under which the sense object is situated.

12. Likewise, the rational is mutually habituated with its own rationable, namely with its own recollectible, intelligible and lovable object which is God, and this object has the first intention; moreover, the rational has another rationable of its own with which it makes up one incorporeal supposite, namely its own recollectible, intelligible and lovable which are of its own nature, and this object has the first intention with respect to all other lower objects; and likewise it also has another object which is not of its own nature, although it is joined to it, and this is the body with which it is united so that both are one man in which the soul recollects, understands and loves or hates, and this object has the first intention of the soul with respect to lower objects, and the soul also has other objects which are external and have the second intention with respect to the other higher objects mentioned above.

13. The rational is a motive power as the recollective moves its recollectible, the intellect moves its intelligible and the will moves its desirable object. This virtual motion is spiritual and not local or temporal, it is incessant, substantial motion essentially identical to the essence of the soul; this is the motion whereby the soul moves itself and moves the body to live within itself, and the body lives and feels within the soul's being just as the sensitive senses objects as it lives within the body.

14. The motive power is habituated with itself, in itself; motion is aggregated from the rational, imaginative, sensitive and vegetative in man, in whom these five powers are blended to make up one supposite, which is man, and each power has the others in itself when they are blended.

Trusting in God's help, we explained how the five universals and the ten predicates are mutually habituated in the Chaos, and following the things we said about them in this discourse, the artist can make his discourse by placing these fifteen principles with figure T in the demonstrative figure by attributing the letters of the alphabet to them as follows: B stands for genus, C for species and so forth, and if he is skilled in discoursing, he will find the particular he seeks among these fifteen principles; but given that the demonstrative figure contains sixteen letters, fifteen of which have been assigned to the said fifteen principles, as we said above, there remains one last letter to be assigned so that the number does not remain incomplete, and we want to assign radical moisture to the letter R, which we now deal with as follows.