2.3 The Principles 

 As we have given an example of good and  bad influences through proper and appropriated qualities, we can similarly give examples through greatness an smallness, duration and privation; and through the active and passive qualities, natural instinct and appetite, virtue and truth; and  delight, difference, concordance and contrariety, the beginning, middle and end; and  majority, equality and minority. 
 And first, we say the following things about greatness. 

About Greatness 
 Greatness, as a part of the starry heavens,  is a proper quality of the heavenly bodies because it is an accident issuing from their substantial greatness. And their substantial greatness moves their accidental greatness to produce its likeness in things below. And accidental greatness in producing the likeness of substantial heavenly greatness in things below also produces its own accidental likeness. Hence, upper greatness causes lower greatness.  This is why the substantial greatness of lower substances is occasioned by substantial heavenly greatness that makes them substantially great,  for instance, great trees and great men. And the same can be said in its own way about accidental heavenly greatness that occasions instances of great heat, intense colors and tastes and other similar things. 

Heaven is substantially and accidentally greater than the planets because heaven includes all the planets and moves all planetary movement as a whole; thus heaven causes more substantial and accidental greatness here below than the planets do.  But because heaven is divided into twelve signs, no single sign has as much virtue as the Sun whose sphere is not divided into parts; and even though Saturn's sphere is larger than the Sun's,  Saturn does not have as much power in things below as the Sun, a star much larger and brighter than Saturn. 

Water and cold are beneficial to wheat when snow and rain fall and bad for wheat when they burn it with frost,  for water does good with its proper cold quality and its appropriated quality of moisture as it also does harm with cold, dryness and the heat Mars provides when wheat withers under frost. 

Likewise, upper greatness naturally produces lower substances that are great in length, breadth and depth, but accidentally produces substances that are diminished through ugliness, monstrosity, deviation, illness and other such qualities as for instance an enormous nose, etc. Hence, upper greatness always causes physical size, but not necessarily great beauty.

And the same applies to virtue, as it causes greater virtue in the human heart than in the feet, and more sensitivity in the hands than in the feet, and so on with other similar things. But greatness does all these things in agreement with nature existing above and below:  it causes great beauty in things below with one sign or planet, and great ugliness with another; and with one it causes little natural virtue, and great virtue with another. 

As fire causes water to act contrary to itself when heating meat in a pot, so upper greatness, following the disposition of planets and signs and natural properties of things below, makes great substances that produce little virtue and small substances that produce great virtue:  for instance fig trees do not produce fruit as large as do grapevines, and a peppercorn is smaller but hotter than a grape.

Following what we said about the greatness of heaven, we can consider the influence that comes from upper greatness down to lower greatness through signs and  planets and how it is received by things below substantially in one way and accidentally in another way. And it causes its likeness in one way with some planets and its unlikeness in another way with other planets, as in the above example of the Moon, Saturn, snow and frost. 

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