In heaven there is natural equality that causes natural equalities below. And equality above causes equality below in two ways, namely by measured equality and proportional equality. One man is equal to another by measured equality inasmuch as both equally belong to the human species of goodness, fieriness, earthyness etc. By proportional equality, a soldier is more honored than an ordinary citizen and the different parts of the human body are equally proportioned, and other things like this.

Aries and Mars equally belong to the species of B by measured equality. However, in proportional equality, Mars has more of B than Aries because Mars has B throughout its entire sphere whereas Aries does not have B everywhere around the circle of heaven; and thus Mars produces greater equal measures in greater proportions in things below than does Aries and Mars also does this with measures of goodness, greatness and the other principles. Aries and Mars are equally proportioned in B as B is greater on account of heat than on account of dryness; and by this kind of proportional equality above, proportional equalities are produced below. The Sun is greater than Venus and thus equality above cannot produce measured equality, but only proportional equality of B D in the two to ensure a tempered opposition in things below through the Sun and Venus; and equality above does the same with the goodness of the Sun and the evil of Mars, with proportional equality and not with measured equality because the Sun is much greater than Mars. Aries and the Sun are equally masculine, but their effects are not equally lasting as the Sun has greater effect than Aries in things below; but they are equal in species and in proportioned qualities and in accordance with their equality they cause equalities of species and qualities in things below.

Equality in heaven is the cause that causes natural instincts and appetites below through justice, through likenesses and conventions; and it is the cause of computation, geometry, arithmetic and music. And this is why astronomers can learn the quadrivial sciences as well as law and medicine more readily than other people can, because of the fact that equality is the subject of law and of medicine.

On account of equality and majority above, some equalities below are greater than others: for instance the equality between two pounds, which is greater than the equality between two ounces; and the same applies to the equality of weight, but not to equality of magnitude if we consider one pound of lead and one pound of iron,  because iron is substantially greater  and stronger than lead, and the same applies to other similar things.

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