G - First, The Substance of Chaos
1. The prime Chaos is substantiated because all four elements together with all their elementals are one substance, which is the prime Chaos, or the first degree of Chaos, and as forms incessantly act in matters, the Chaos is incessantly substantiated and substantiable as it exists as one substance composed of igneity, aereity, aqueity and terreity.
2. In the first degree of Chaos there are countless substances of the third degree, and through generation, each and every one is substantiated and substantiable up to the ultimate point before it begins to decline toward corruption, and this is because the elements from which substance is produced incessantly transit through each other in this substance, as we have noted in many places in this book.
3. In the first and third Chaos, essence belongs equally to two things, namely substance and accidents; now the essence of substance is specific form and matter making up a specific supposite numerically identical to its own essence, just like the first degree of Chaos is one in numerical identity with its essence, namely igneity, aqueity etc. And just like every supposite in the third degree of Chaos is numerically identical to its specific essential form and matter, likewise the quantity of the first degree of Chaos is numerically identical to its own essence, which is the essential quantity of igneity, aereity, aqueity, terreity, and the same with the other accidents of the prime Chaos.
4. The same applies likewise to the third Chaos, now the quantity of each and every elemented supposite is numerically identical to its own essence, namely the essential quantity of fire, air etc. And this shows clearly enough that substance and accidents differ as two essentially different parts, namely the substance and its accidents which proceed from it essentially and virtually
5. As the first degree of Chaos communicates itself to the third, the third is substantiable in various species, while the first is substantiative, and works together with the generating agent in the third degree of Chaos, as we see in a wheat grain or some other supposite; now the prime Chaos, or the first degree (which is the same thing) and the form of the grain both act on the matter of the first and third degrees of Chaos so that the substance of the grain can exist.
6. In substance there is a substantial agent and a substantial patient, namely substantial form and substantial matter, and hence the substantial agent acts on the substantial patient with the agent's accidents, namely quantity, quality etc. as it quantifies, qualifies itself etc. in action, whereas the patient is passive under the agent with the patient's accidents, i.e. while it quantifies, qualifies itself etc. in passion, as we see in fire: now its form heats and illuminates its matter, and this form is a bright, hot agent that can be calefactive and illuminative within its own substance, and the same applies likewise to the other elements.
7. In every elemented thing there is one substantial form and one substantial matter: this form is composed of four substantial forms, and likewise, the matter is composed of four substantial matters, and given that every form with its matter and its quantities, qualities etc. is present in every other form as the supreme virtue of mixture blends them into one substance, all the substantial and accidental parts are so efficaciously blended and joined that there is no way any single minute part can exist without the others, and as one cannot exist without others, it can neither be seen or touched without the others, but the entire being aggregated from diverse parts is visible and tangible, and as when water is mixed with wine, each tiniest part of the water is contained in every tiniest part of the wine and conversely, they both appear to be only one substance, and likewise, due to the maximal mixture and union of substance with its accidents and conversely, it would seem that there is no difference between the essence of substance and the essence of accidents in this substance.
8. All the substantial and accidental parts are so situated in an elemented thing that all of them, both substantial and accidental, are containers and contained, or else place, time, quantity, quality etc. would not be sufficient for the mixture of substantial parts, nor would the substantial parts suffice for the mixture of the accidental ones, nor consequently would there be perfect mixture in substance, which is impossible.
9. All substantial and accidental parts exist so that substance can exist; however, the substantial parts exist in substance by the first intention, and the accidental parts by the second intention, or else substance would not be prior to accidents in natural intention, which is impossible, and shows that the essence of substance is not the same as the essence of accidents.
10. Matter has greater appetite for the common parts of form in substance than for the quantities, qualities etc. of these parts, and in the same way the common form in substance has greater appetite for the common parts of matter than the quantities, qualities etc. of these parts, and this is because form and matter are one being identical to substance but they are not identical to accidents, nor do they belong to the same species as accidents; and this shows that the major virtue of substance consists in form and matter, whereas the minor virtue consists in accidents.
11. In the first degree, Chaos is one confused substance created in the beginning; but in the second degree, the essence of this universal substance was specified and individuated through creation into many substances and then further specified and individuated through generation into countless substances, and we understand that the same applies to the individuation of accidents.
12. The substance of a generating grain individuates itself into many grains through the generative virtue of the first degree of Chaos individuating itself in this grain through the third degree; now from the parts of the generating first degree which transit through the grain, and from the parts of the generating grain are produced many grains of the species of the generating one which communicates its own proper substance to them, but not the same numerically identical substance, or else there would be no renovation and generation.
13. Like the water from a dead and putrefied fish which had been substantially composed under the species of the fish reverts to the water which contains this putrid matter, likewise the substance of a corrupted grain in the soil reverts to the first degree of Chaos, which is diffused everywhere, both substantially and accidentally as a naturally substantial and essential thing, and because its essential substance is diffused everywhere, it receives in itself the substantial essence of the putrefied grain, and likewise, because its accidental essence is diffused everywhere, it absorbs the accidental essence of the grain, and therefore the substance and accidents of the grain, as they discard their specific being, revert from the third to the first degree of Chaos which is diffused everywhere, so the first degree can have the matter and potential to conserve the specificity of the third degree.
the substance of a man is produced from the first degree into the third
in accordance with both substantial and accidental specific parts which
are objects of Ideas, likewise, after a man's death they revert to the
first degree, where they are then conserved by means of Ideas while awaiting
the day of resurrection when the same parts will be brought back to the
third degree of Chaos so that the entire human substance will then exist
as the selfsame substance which it previously was with all its parts, or
else there would be no true resurrection, nor would any kind of justice
be truly an object of God's Ideas, which is impossible.