Chapter 14 - Questions about Applying the Hundred Forms
Article 1 - Questions about Entity15. We ask: what is entity? What is the concrete of entity? What is the difference between entity and being? We answer by the second species of rule C, which signifies its concretes, as do the second species of rule D and the first of E. And go to the hundred forms, the first article on entity.
Article 2 - Questions about Essence16. Do entity and essence convert? The answer is yes, or else thing and being would not convert.
Is there any difference between essence and being?
ibid. article 2.
Article 3 - Questions about Unity17. We ask: what is unity? Why is this goodness in unity, why is this greatness in unity? Are goodness, greatness etc. different in creatures? And if they are different, why are they different? Answer: so that unity be the cause of many unities, just as difference causes many numerically different unities.
What is the concrete of unity? And if we say that it is a unit, I ask, why does its concrete exist? I answer that it is so that unity can have a subject in which it is sustained, and so that difference can enter between unity and unit, just like between essence and being. And go to article 3.
Article 4 - Questions about Plurality18. We ask: what is plurality? What is the source of plurality? What causes the difference between goodness, greatness etc? What is the concrete of plurality? Article 4, ibid.
Article 5 - Questions about Nature19. We ask: what is nature? Are there any substantial principles? The answer is yes, as shown by the second species of rule C. What is the concrete of nature? With what things is nature combined? Go to article 5.
Article 6 - Questions about Genus20. We ask: what is genus? To which principles does genus apply? Is absolute good a genus? And likewise with absolutely great being, etc. Is goodness more general substantially than accidentally? The answer is yes, goodness is primarily a substance, and secondarily an accident. Is genus a real thing that exists outside the soul? The answer is yes, or else the soul would cause the differences among species, which is impossible. Can irrational animals imagine a genus? The answer is no, or else they would make science. Moreover, the imagination does not attain any abstract objects through lines, figures and colors and other such imaginable things, but it only attains concrete things in this way. And go to article 6.
Article 7 - Questions about Species21. What is a species? To which loci of this art does species apply? How does a form act in accordance with its species? Is species something real outside the soul? Can a genus without species have any individuals? What is the concrete of species? What is the difference between natural and moral species? What are the species of the virtues and vices? Article 7.
Article 8 - Questions about Individuality22. What is individuality? How do we define individuality? What are the correlatives of individuality? Why is an individual indivisible? Would an individual exist outside the soul, supposing that species did not exist outside the soul? Why are the correlatives of individuals not perceptible to the senses? What is the concrete of individuality? Why is "individual" the concrete of individuality? Answer: because individuality has indivisible concretes. And go to article 8.
Article 9 - Questions about Property23. We ask: what is property? In what way is property an implicit principle of this art? To which rule does the definition of property apply? Why is property a reason for proper things to produce proper things? Is property a cause for appropriating just as difference is a cause of differentiating? What things does the concrete of property consist of? How does property relate to natural and moral things? In what way is property a cause? And how about the mechanical arts? Go to article 9.
Article 10 - Questions about Simplicity24. What is simplicity? What things does simplicity cause? To what things does simplicity apply? What are the correlatives of simplicity? What is the concrete of simplicity, and what does it arise from? Go to article 10.
Article 11 - Questions about Composition25. We ask: what is composition? To what things does composition apply? From what does composition arise? What are compound correlatives? Could composition exist in a subject, supposing that its principles were not essentially in the subject? The answer is no, because the compound would have nothing to sustain its existence, and the correlatives of composition, the second species of rule D and the first of E would not exist in the world. And go to article 11.
Article 12 - Questions about Form26. We ask: what is form? To which principles does form apply? What is the difference between created and uncreated form? Can form act without its correlatives? Why is form imperceptible to the senses? What is the concrete of form? What sensible things signify form? Go to article 12.
Article 13 - Questions about Matter27. We ask: what is matter? To which principles of this art does matter apply? Does matter have correlatives? The answer is no, or else it would belong to the genus of action. What things is the concrete of matter made of? What is the universal source of matter? Go to article 13.
Article 14 - Questions about Substance28. We ask: what is substance? To which principles does substance apply? Does substance have correlatives? Is all created substance composed of form and matter? What is the concrete of substance? Why does substance exist on its own? Answer: because it is active in form, passive in matter and compound due to the conjunction of form and matter. Why is substance the substrate of accidents? Answer: because it can neither exist nor act without them. Can substance be sensed? The answer is no, because the senses cannot objectify a much with substance as with accidents. And go to article 14.
Article 15 - Questions about Accidents29. We ask: what is an accident? Where does accident apply? Is an accident mainly intended to be an end in itself, or is it for some other end? From what do accidents arise? What is the concrete of accident? Are there two kinds of accidents, namely intrinsic and extrinsic ones? Do the senses attain intrinsic accidents? Can the imagination imagine an intrinsic accident without a sensible extrinsic accident? Can the intellect make science without intrinsic and extrinsic accidents? Go to article 15.
Article 16 - Questions about Quantity30. We ask: what is quantity? Go to the definition of goodness, part 3 #1, and define quantity in the way that goodness is defined by saying: quantity is the thing whereby a quantum quantifies a quantum. From what things does quantity arise? Is quantity caused by sequence? What are the principles for measuring quantity? What is the concrete of quantity? Go to article 16.
Article 17 - Questions about Quality31. We ask: How can we find a definition for quality? Go to the definition of goodness and define it in the way that goodness is defined, saying: quality is the reason for qualified things to produce qualified things. To what does quality apply as a habit? In what things is quality situated? What is the concrete of quality? What does quality arise from, and why is it an accident? Go to article 17.
Article 18 - Questions about Relation32. We ask:to which terms does relation apply, so that we know how to define it? What is a related thing? Is contraction a principle of relation? Can a principle without correlatives be a principle? Go to article 18.
Article 19 - Questions about Action33. To what things does action apply, so it can be applied as a term? Is action the thing whereby the doer does what is done? Is an activated thing a concrete of action? By what things is the concrete of action designated and clarified? Go to article 19.
Article 20 - Questions about Passion34. To which principles does the definition of passion apply? Is general passiveness the source of passion? Is passion something from which passive things arise? Is a passive thing a concrete of passion? How is passion passive? Go to article 20.
Article 21 - Questions about Habit35. To which principles of this art does the definition of habit apply? How is a natural habit different from a moral habit? What is the concrete of habit, and what is it habituated with? What does habit arise from? Are there both extrinsic and intrinsic habits? Go to article 21.
Article 22 - Questions about Situation36. To which principles of this art does the definition of site apply? Is site an accident? In what are the correlatives of things situated? What is the concrete of site? What does site spring from, and where is it located? Go to article 22.
Article 23 - Questions about Time37. What is time? To which principles does time apply? With what is time multiplied? Is motion a sign of time? What is the concrete of time? Go to article 23.
Article 24 - Questions about Locus38. What is locus? To which explicit principles does locus apply? Is locus something mobile? From what things does locus arise? What is the concrete of locus? Are located and mobile things signs of locus? The answer is yes. And go to article 24.
Article 25 - Questions about Motion39. To which principles does motion apply? From what correlatives do the correlatives of motion arise? Does motion arise when its correlatives arise? Can absolute innate motion be sensed? Is mobility a disposition of motion? When motion is under way, is it both a mover and something moved?
Does appetite cause motion? Does heaven have correlatives through motion? What is the concrete of motion? Does heaven repose in motion, or in what is moved? Go to article 25.
Article 26 - Questions about Immobility40. What is immobility? To which principles does immobility apply? What is the concrete of immobility? What are the concretes of immobility? Why are immobile things immobile? How can something mobile be immobile? Go to article 26.
Article 27 - Questions about Instinct47. What is natural instinct? To which principles does natural instinct apply? What is the concrete of natural instinct? What is the general source whereby each form acts in accordance with its own species? Go to article 27.
Article 28 - Questions about Appetite42. How can natural appetite be defined? To which principles can natural appetite be applied? Which are the general principles that precede appetite? What things cause the concrete of appetite? Can appetite repose without an object? What makes appetite last? What makes appetite grow? Is appetite both a mover and something moved? Go to article 28.
Article 29 - Questions about Attraction43. How can we define attraction? To which principles does attraction apply? Does attraction in any way belong to the genus of passion? Does an attractor attract the attracted outside of its essence? From what does the attractor attract the attracted? What is the concrete of attraction? Is an attracted thing a subject of attraction and is attraction a habit of the attracted thing? Why is there attraction? Does an attractor attract things in accordance with its own species? From which attractions are moral attractions derived? Go to article 29.
Article 30 - Questions about Reception44. What is reception? To which principles does reception apply? Due to its correlatives, does reception belong to the genus of action and passion? Where does reception receive the receivable? From what does it receive it, and why? Does the receiver belong to the genus of power and the received to the genus of object? Does a power move itself with its object, or does the object move the power? What is the concrete of reception? Is the passive correlative an entirely general genus, and is the receivable correlative a subalternate genus? Does the receivable correlative have species? Go to article 30.
Article 31 - Questions about Phantasm45. What is a phantasm? To which principles does the definition of phantasm apply? Are phantasms in their subjects potentially through possibility, or are they in their objects as matter? Where does a power receive phantasms? Can phantasms be generated without any passion in the faculties? Are phantasms in the making in the senses, and in actual being in the imagination and intellect? How are science and morality generated? How can the same phantasm be differently received by the soul? Why are phantasms more general to man than to irrational animals? Are fantasies subjects or concretes of phantasm? Do fantasies consist of the likenesses of principles? Are there any phantasms in the senses? Go to article 31.
Article 32 - Questions about Fullness46. What is fullness? To which principles does the definition of fullness apply the most? Can a power be full without correlatives? Can an elemented thing be full in the absence of the elemental essences? Is idleness the emptiness of a power? What is the concrete of fullness? Can something full be filled with things that are not full? Do the correlatives of the principles belong to the genus of fullness? Does a full thing mean being and does an empty thing mean non being? Do positive habits belong to the genus of fullness, and do privative habits belong to the genus of emptiness? Does generation lead to fullness and corruption to emptiness? Go to article 32.
Article 33 - Questions about Diffusion47. What is diffusion? To which principles does its definition apply? What are the correlatives of diffusion? Can goodness, without its innate diffusion, diffuse itself outwardly into other essences? Is a diffused thing a subject of diffusion? Is diffusion a habit of diffused things? Does diffusion signify genus, and does restriction signify species? Is diffusion a cause of generosity and is restriction a cause of avarice? Go to article 33.
Article 34 - Questions about Digestion48. What is digestion? To which principles does its definition apply? To what correlatives do the correlatives of digestion apply? What is the concrete subject of digestion? Are the species of the powers digested, and where are they digested? Are they digested in the same way in the sensitive power as in the vegetative; and in the imaginative in the same way as in the sensitive; and in the rational faculty in the same way as in the imaginative? Go to article 34.
Article 35 - Questions about Expulsion49. What is expulsion? To which principles does its definition apply? What are the signs of expulsion, and in what subjects do they appear? Does one phantasm expel another phantasm just as in the vegetative, a new leaf expels an old leaf? Does the act of one habit expel the act of another habit? What is the concrete of expulsion? Is sin expelled from divine grace? The answer is no, because sin never was in divine grace; but it is expelled from the sinner by divine grace. And go to article 35.
Article 36 - Questions about Signification50. What is signification, and to which principles does its definition apply? Is a good thing a sign of goodness, and vice versa? What is occultation, and to which principles does its definition apply? Is an occulted thing a sign of occultation and vice versa? Is an accident a sign of substance and vice versa? Is greatness a sign of goodness and vice versa? Does an opposite signify its opposite and vice versa? Without signs, can the imagination imagine, or the intellect understand anything? Is an act a sign of a power? Is an object of an act a sign of the power? Is the affatus a sign of the mind? Is a sensible object a sign of sense? Does the subject signify the predicate and vice versa? Go to article 36.
Article 37 - Questions about Beauty51. What is beauty? To which principles does its definition apply? Is greatness the beauty of goodness? Are correlatives beauties of goodness? Are the moral virtues beauties of goodness? Is majority a beauty of virtue? Are vices human ugliness? Is greater faith the beauty of a greater law? Are disposition and proportion forms of beauty? Is beauty the ultimate end? Go to article 37.
Article 38 - Questions about Newness52. What is newness? Can an effect exist without newness? Can time and place be without newness, and vice versa? Does a second newness make a previous newness old? Do infinity and eternity belong to the genus of newness? Why is nobility more due to oldness than to newness? Why do people enjoy new things? Answer: because we are on a road. Can there be motion without newness? Go to article 38.
Article 39 - Questions about Idea53. What is an idea? To which principles does its definition apply? Can the same idea be at the same time old in one way and new in another way? Can an idea exist without the divine correlatives? Is newness the effect of an idea? Is an idea impeded by its own effect? Do finite and new things impede infinite and eternal ones, and vice versa? Are ideated things signs or likenesses of ideas? Are ideas infinite as a cause and finite as an effect? Go to article 39.
Article 40 - Questions about Metaphysics54. What is metaphysics? Is metaphysics the cause of all sciences? Is metaphysics a sign of the ideas? Why is metaphysics beyond nature? Answer: because it is not outside the soul. Why can a body be divided into an infinite number of parts? Answer: because metaphysics is a sign of infinity. Is metaphysics a habit of the intellect with regard to intelligible infinity just as faith is a habit of the intellect with regard to credible infinity? Go to article 40.
Article 41 - Questions about Potential Being55. What is potential being? Is a being that exists in potentiality outside of motion, quantity and things like this? How are accidents generated? Does one accident arise from another, like motion from motion, quantity from quantity and so forth? Hoe does one substance arise from another substance, and one accident from another accident, and accidents from substance? Go to article 41.
Article 42 - Questions about Punctuality56. What is punctuality? Why are there points? Can a point be sensed or imagined? Is the natural point only attained by the intellect? Given that the natural point has never been sensed or imagined, what does the intellect use to make a science of it? Why is a point indivisible? Go to article 42.
Article 43 - Questions about the Line57. What is a line? Why is the line the second part of body? Is a line made of points? What is the most basic physical particle? What are the prime causes of continuous and discrete quantity? Supposing a line were not made of points, could it be divided? What is the cause of length? What is the cause of breadth? What things cause surface? What things does depth arise from? What comes first in generation: is it rotundity, or length, or breadth, or depth? What are the prime basic principles of body? Why is circumference a higher figure? Go to article 43.
Article 44 - Questions about the Triangle58. What is a triangle? Where is the natural triangle? How does one triangle rule over other triangles? How is the triangle situated in generation and corruption? What things is an angle of a triangle composed of? How many triangles are situated in an elemented thing? What things is a body full of? Is there anything in the intellect that was never perceived by the senses? Go to article 44.
Article 45 - Questions about the Square59. What is a square? Why can a square be divided into four equal triangles? Why does the natural square have four right angles? How does natural multiplication proceed in elemented things? In natural things, why does multiplication first proceed with a line, secondly with an acute angle, third with a right angle and finally with a circle? Are the point and the circle extremes of natural things? What are the causes of straightness and obliqueness? Go to article 45.
Article 46 - Questions about the Circle60. What is the circle? Why is the circle the ultimate figure? Why does the circle extensively contain in itself all other figures without being contained by them? What are the prime parts of the circle? Why is the circle the greatest figure that can be? Is the circle a sign of infinity? Is circular motion a sign of the infinite at work? Go to article 46.
Article 47 - Questions about Body61. What is body? Which parts of body are different in species? Is body constituted of several species? Why does body act in accordance with its species? Is there some species that is constituted of several species? Why is body the only divisible thing? Why does body have continuous and discrete quantity? Why is one body terminated by another body? What things is body composed of? Why is the eighth sphere not in any locus? How does body exist in space, time and motion? Why are all bodies finite? Is there intrinsic and extrinsic motion in body? Go to article 47.
Article 48 - Questions about Figure62. What is a figure? How can a figure be differently sensed and imagined? What things is a figure made of? Is a figure an objective sign of matter? By which senses is a figure most objectified? After death, does the soul retain impressions of the senses through figure? Go to article 48.
Article 49 - Questions about the Directions63. What are the six directions, and why are there neither more nor less than six of them? What things cause the center? Is motion possible without the six directions? Are the six directions coessential parts of motion? Is a diametrical line one of the six directions? Given that the eighth sphere is a body, how come it does not have six directions? Answer: because a concave figure does not essentially contain any diametrical lines. And go to article 49.
Article 50 - Questions about Monstrosity64. What is monstrosity? Does monstrosity stand somewhere between positive and privative habit? Can there be a general monstrosity from which all particular monstrosities descend? Is monstrosity something outside the natural correlatives? Does monstrosity arise from contingent factors? The answer is yes, because it lacks straight instinct and appetite. And go to article 50.
Article 51 - Questions about Derivation65. What is derivation? Does derivation contain any correlatives? What are the causes of derivation? What are the effects of derivation? Is motion possible without derivation? Does derivation follow from disposition and proportion? From what are sciences derived, and how? And we ask the same about the mechanical arts. Go to article 51.
Article 52 - Questions about Shadow66. What is shadow? Is shadow a privative habit? What causes shadow? Of what is shadow the color? To what does the shape of a shadow belong? How does a shadow exist? Is there one general shadow from which all particular shadows descend? Given that crystal is transparent, why are there shadows in it? Given that the sun and the moon are clear bodies, why is the moon a shadowy body, whereas the sun is not? Is monstrosity a shadow of nature? Is ignorance a shadow in the intellect? Is sin a shadow of virtue? Go to article 52.
Article 53 - Questions about Mirrors67. What is a mirror? Why does a mirror reflect figures, whereas plain glass does not? What does the shadow in a mirror arise from? What are the constituent principles of shadow in a mirror? Why does a whole mirror cause one shadow, but when divided, why does it cause several shadows of the same species? Answer: it is because its quantity is continuous and divided. And go to article 53.
Article 54 - Questions about Color68. What is color in its subject? Of what correlatives are the correlatives of color a habit? Can there be one color which includes many colorable things? Does color lend color to air in accordance with its species? How is color a proper and an appropriated passion? Why can the sight not perceive color without shape? How does one habit exists on top of another? Why are there not many whitenesses of different species? Answer: because color is an entirely general genus. And go to article 54.
Article 55 - Questions about Proportion69. What is proportion? To which principles does its definition apply? What are the principles of proportion? Can there be proportion without disposition and conditions? Is there any monstrosity in proportion? Why is there no proportion between finite and infinite things? Supposing that infinite being had no correlatives, would finite being be proportioned to it? Is newness proportioned to eternity? Can there be any proportion in infinity? Go to article 55.
Article 56 - Questions about Disposition70. What is disposition? What is substantial and accidental disposition? Is a stone as disposed toward being senses as the senses are disposed toward sensing it? Is a sense as disposed toward being imagined as the imagination is disposed toward imagining it? Is the imagination as disposed toward being understood as the intellect is disposed toward understanding it? Is the intellect more disposed toward believing in God than toward understanding God? The answer is yes, but only through faith. Is God more disposed toward being remembered than the memory is disposed toward remembering Him? The answer is yes, or else there would be no point in hope. Is God more disposed toward being loved than the human will is disposed toward loving Him? The answer is yes, or else there would be no point in charity. Is God more disposed toward creating the world, than the world is disposed toward being created? The answer is yes, because the effect in its passivity does not have as much capacity as does the cause through its action; or else, heaven would have the capacity to be infinitely great in extension, and to be created from eternity, which is impossible, as was shown above in part 9, section 3 about heaven, chapter 1, #18 and following. Now we ask whether God is more disposed toward acting infinitely by his infinity and eternity as He is disposed toward understanding and willing with his intellect and will? The answer is no, because there is nothing prior or posterior in God. Is God more disposed toward creating a major creature than a minor one? The answer is yes, just as a major efficient cause is more disposed toward doing more rather than less. Having considered all these things, the intellect and the will are greatly disposed to rejoice. And go to article 56.
Article 57 - Questions about Creation71. What is creation? What is creation in the creator and in created things? How does creation transit from the idea to the ideated? Go to article 57.
Article 58 - Questions about Predestination72. What is predestination? Is predestination an idea? In predestination, why does the idea precede what is ideated and created? How does the predestined man exist in predestination? How is predestination diversified? How do predestination and free will relate in the subject in which they exist? Supposing that predestination destroyed free will, could the world be created and could God's justice act upon it? Go to article 58.
Article 59 - Questions about Mercy73. What is mercy? Is mercy an idea in eternity? Is there a mercy that is God? Is God disposed to forgive more than the sinner is disposed to sin? Do predestination and mercy convene in a new subject in the same way as in eternity? Can predestination hinder the act of mercy and justice? The answer is no. And Go to article 59.
Article 60 - Questions about Necessity74. What is necessity? What is necessity in God? What is necessity in a new subject? Do divine justice and mercy necessitate that man can attain glory if man does penance for the sins he has committed? Do God's justice and mercy necessitate man's salvation by judging and forgiving as much as predestination and divine intelligence do by understanding? Go to article 60.
Article 61 - Questions about Fortune75. What is fortune? Where is the subject of fortune? Does fortune have more being through its effect than by itself? Is it fortune that makes the fortunate man fortunate, or does the fortunate man make himself fortunate with fortune, like a scientist acquires his science through understanding? The answer is no, because the scientist acquires his science through understanding, whereas the fortunate man makes himself fortunate through ignorance. Go to article 61.
Article 62 - Questions about Order76. What is order? Where does order begin, an where does it repose? What are the prime principles of order? Can predestination and heaven destroy order in man, plants, animals and elements? Go to article 62.
Article 63 - Questions about Advice77. What is advice? And what is a recipient of advice? To which principles does advice apply? Does advice have general principles whereby it is general? Is advice well formulated when it is processed with the principles and rules, and is it deformed when it is not processed with them? Is advice assertive when it has been processed with the principles and rules, and when it is not processed with them, is it doubtful and hazardous? Why does advice deal more with prior matters than with secondary ones? Are ignorance and sin the greatest enemies of advice? Go to article 63.
Article 64 - Questions about Grace78. What is grace? With which principles can grace be recognized? Can grace exists in a subject not disposed toward it? Can there be grace without charity? Is hope formed by grace? Is faith futile without grace? Which virtues require a greater disposition toward receiving grace: the cardinal virtues, or the theological ones? Why is there grace, what is it made of and how much of it is there? Is grace a proper passion? When is there grace, where is it, how, and with what does it exist? Go to article 64.
Article 65 - Questions about Perfection79. What is perfection? What is perfection derived from? With what things does perfection repose, and what does it repose in? Does supreme perfection consist in perfecting an imperfect thing? Can a perfect thing bring an imperfect thing to perfection? Is a power perfect without an act? Does the ultimate end belong to the genus of perfection? Is moral perfection a sign of natural perfection? Go to article 65.
Article 66 - Questions about Clarification80. What is clarification? Where does the intellect clarify doubtful matters? How does clarification arise as a habit? What is the material for clarification in this art? Go to article 66.
Article 67 - Questions about Transubstantiation81. What is transubstantiation? Is transubstantiation under way, or already done? Why is there transubstantiation? How does transubstantiation occur? With what is transubstantiation done? What does transubstantiation consist of? How does transubstantiation exist in time and space? Go to article 67.
Article 68 - Questions about Alteration82. What is alteration? How is natural alteration different from moral alteration? Does natural alteration proceed with innate potential whereas moral alteration proceeds with acquired potential? What does alteration consist of, why does it exist, when does it occur, where is it, how and with what does it exist? Go to article 68.
Article 69 - Questions about Infinity83. What is infinity? Does infinity have its own coessential and natural correlatives? With what things is infinity conditioned? Can infinity be impeded? Is infinite being apt to infinitize more than finite being is apt to finitize? Does the potential ability of fire to burn an infinite amount of wood (supposing it had it), signify divine infinity and God's infinite act? Is the virtue that a human intellect has when it lasts in eternity with enough objects to multiply an infinite number by understanding, and also by the will's willing, a sign of God's infinity and of his infinite act? Supposing that heaven had innate memory and motion in eternity where it could count and remember an infinite number of days, would such a memory be a sign of divine infinity and eternity with their acts of infinitizing and eternalizing? The answer is yes, as shown by the proof concluding from the smaller to the greater. And rule B cannot deny this. Go to article 69.
Article 70 - Questions about Deceit84. What is deceit? How are positive and privative habits different in deception? What does deception consist of, how does it exist, how is it detected, with what does it proceed, and with what is it detected? Go to article 70.